|6 Months Ended
Jul. 31, 2022
(5) Intangible Assets
Intangible assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
Amortization expense related to the existing finite-lived intangible assets is expected to be as follows (in thousands):
Amortization expense related to intangible assets in the aggregate was $45.2 million and $84.8 million for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022 (Successor) and $18.5 million, $14.6 million and $46.5 million for the period from June 12, 2021 through July 31, 2021 (Successor), May 1, 2021 through June 11, 2021 (Predecessor (SLH)) and February 1, 2021 through June 11, 2021 (Predecessor (SLH)), respectively.
Fresh-start Reporting for Intangible Assets (Predecessor (SLH))
In accordance with ASC 852, with the application of fresh-start reporting, the Company allocated its reorganization value to its individual assets based on their estimated fair values in conformity with ASC 805, including those of intangible assets.
Intangible assets were measured based upon estimates of the future performance and cash from the Successor Company at emergence. Values and useful lives assigned to intangible assets were based on estimated value and use of these assets by a market participant. The customer contracts/relationships and backlog were valued using the income approach. The trademarks and trade names were valued using the relief from royalty method. The income approach determines fair value by estimating the after-tax cash flows attributable to an identified asset over its useful life (Level 3 inputs) and then discounting these after-tax cash flows back to a present value. The developed software/courseware and publishing rights were valued using the replacement cost approach. The cost approach determines fair value by estimating the cost to replace or reproduce an asset at current prices and is reduced for functional and economic obsolescence.
Impairment of Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price in a business combination over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired. Goodwill in fresh-start accounting results when the reorganization value of the emerging entity exceeds what can be attributed to specific tangible or identified intangible assets. The Company tests goodwill for impairment during the fourth quarter every year in
accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles — Goodwill (“ASC 350”). In connection with the impairment evaluation, the Company may first consider qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances indicates that it is more likely than not (i.e., a likelihood of more than 50%) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. Performing a quantitative goodwill impairment test is not necessary if an entity determines based on this assessment that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company fails or elects to bypass the qualitative assessment, the goodwill impairment test must be performed. This test requires a comparison of the carrying value of the reporting unit to its estimated fair value. If the carrying value of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds its implied fair value, an impairment loss equal to the difference is recorded, not to exceed the amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. In determining reporting units, the Company first identifies its operating segments, and then assesses whether any components of these segments constitute a business for which discrete financial information is available and where segment management regularly reviews the operating results of that component.
Intangible assets arising from business combinations are generally recorded based upon estimates of the future performance and cash flows from the acquired business. The Company uses an income approach to determine the estimated fair value of certain identifiable intangible assets including customer relationships and trade names and uses a cost approach for other identifiable intangible assets, including developed software/courseware. The income approach determines fair value by estimating the after-tax cash flows attributable to an identified asset over its useful life (Level 3 inputs) and then discounting these after-tax cash flows back to a present value. The cost approach determines fair value by estimating the cost to replace or reproduce an asset at current prices and is reduced for functional and economic obsolescence. Developed technology represents patented and unpatented technology and know-how. Customer contracts and relationships represents established relationships with customers, which provide a ready channel for the sale of additional content and services. Trademarks and tradenames represent acquired product names and marks that the Company intends to continue to utilize.
The Company reviews intangible assets subject to amortization at least annually to determine if any adverse conditions exist or a change in circumstances has occurred that would indicate impairment or a change in remaining useful life. Conditions that would indicate impairment and trigger a more frequent impairment assessment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, or an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. The Company reviews indefinite-lived intangible assets, including goodwill and certain trademarks, during the fourth quarter of each year for impairment, or more frequently if certain indicators are present or changes in circumstances suggest that impairment may exist and reassesses their classification as indefinite-lived assets.
During the three months ended July 31, 2022, the Company’s Global Knowledge instructor led training (“ILT”) business experienced a significant decline in bookings and GAAP revenue compared to the corresponding period in the prior year. Management believes the poor performance is due to a variety of factors, including (i) reduced corporate spending as customers brace for the potential of a recessionary environment, (ii) difficulty maintaining adequate sales capacity in a challenging labor market for employers and (iii) evolving customer preferences with respect to training and ILT in a post COVID environment.
In light of the circumstances and indicators of impairment described above, management first considered whether any impairment was present for the Global Knowledge long-lived assets group, concluding that no such impairments were present after conducting an undiscounted cash flow recoverability test.
In accordance with ASC 350, management next considered whether there were any indicators of impairment for Global Knowledge goodwill, concluding that triggering events had occurred, necessitating an interim goodwill impairment test as of July 31, 2022. In comparing the estimated fair value of the Global Knowledge reporting unit to its carrying value, the Company considered the results of both a discounted cash flow (“DCF”) analysis and a market multiples approach. The results of the impairment test performed indicated that the carrying value of the Global Knowledge reporting unit exceeded its estimated fair value. Based on the results of the goodwill impairment testing procedures, the Company recorded a $70.5 million goodwill impairment for the three and six months ended July 31, 2022. The Company believes that its procedures for estimating gross future cash flows for each intangible asset are reasonable and consistent with current market conditions for each of the dates when impairment testing was performed.
A roll forward of goodwill is as follows:
As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, there were $70.5 million and $0.0 million, respectively, of accumulated impairment losses for the Global Knowledge segment.
As of July 31, 2022 and January 31, 2022, there were no accumulated impairment losses for the Skillsoft segment.