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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF

1934

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF

1934

For the transition period from                    to                   

Commission File Number: 001-38960

Skillsoft Corp.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

 

83-4388331

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

 

 

300 Innovative Way, Suite 201
Nashua, New Hampshire 03062

(Address of principal executive offices)

Tel: (603) 324-3000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share

SKIL

New York Stock Exchange

Warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one share of Class A common stock

SKIL.WS

New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes        No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer   ☐

 

Accelerated filer   ☐

Non-accelerated filer   

 

Smaller reporting company   

Emerging growth company   

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No    

The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed by reference to the last reported price at which the registrant’s common equity was sold on July 31, 2021 (the last day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second quarter) was: $430 million.

The number of shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding as of April 11, 2022 was: 162,911,755.

Table of Contents

SKILLSOFT CORP.

FORM 10-K

FOR THE QUARTER ENDED JANUARY 31, 2022

INDEX

PAGE

4

11

37

37

37

37

38

38

38

57

58

124

124

124

124

125

134

144

147

151

151

152

157

1

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CAUTIONARY NOTES REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K” or “Annual Report”) includes statements that are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which are intended to be covered by the safe harbors created by those laws. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our operations. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, that address activities, events or developments that we expect or anticipate may occur in the future, including such things as our outlook, our product development and planning, our pipeline, future capital expenditures, financial results, the impact of regulatory changes, existing and evolving business strategies and acquisitions and dispositions, demand for our services and competitive strengths, goals, the benefits of new initiatives, growth of our business and operations, our ability to successfully implement our plans, strategies, objectives, expectations and intentions are forward-looking statements. Also, when we use words such as “may,” “will,” “would,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “seek,” “outlook,” “target,” goal,” “probably,” or similar expressions, we are making forward-looking statements. Such statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of Skillsoft’s management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results may differ from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking disclosure is speculative by its nature.

There are important risks, uncertainties, events and factors that could cause our actual results or performance to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements contained in this document, including:

our ability to realize the benefits expected from the business combination between Skillsoft, Churchill Capital Corp. II, and Global Knowledge, and other recent transactions, including our acquisitions of Pluma and Codecademy;
the impact of U.S. and worldwide economic trends, financial market conditions, geopolitical events, natural disasters, climate change, public health crises, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (including any variant), political crises, or other catastrophic events on our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations;
our ability to attract and retain key employees and qualified technical and sales personnel;
our reliance on third parties to provide us with learning content, subject matter expertise and content productions and the impact on our business if our relationships with these third parties are terminated;
fluctuations in our future operating results;
our ability to successfully identify, consummate and achieve strategic objectives in connection with our acquisition opportunities and realize the benefits expected from the acquisition;
the demand for, and acceptance of, our products and for cloud-based technology learning solutions in general;
our ability to compete successfully in competitive markets and changes in the competitive environment in our industry and the markets in which we operate;
our ability to market existing products and develop new products;
a failure of our information technology infrastructure or any significant breach of security, including in relation to the migration of our key platforms from our systems to cloud storage;
future regulatory, judicial and legislative changes in our industry;
our ability to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our business, including shifting global privacy, data protection, and cyber and information security laws and regulations, as well as state privacy and data protection laws, such as those in California, Colorado, and Virginia;
a failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
our ability to protect or obtain intellectual property rights;
our ability to raise additional capital;
the impact of our indebtedness on our financial position and operating flexibility;
our ability to meet future liquidity requirements and comply with restrictive covenants related to long-term indebtedness;
our ability to successfully defend ourselves in legal proceedings; and
our ability to continue to meet applicable listing standards.

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Actual results and events in future periods may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K. There are a number of factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those indicated or implied by forward-looking statements, many of which are beyond our control, including the risk factors discussed in Item 1A of this Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K represent our estimates only as of the date of this filing and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. While we may elect to update these forward-looking statements in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, whether to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions, changes in other factors affecting such forward-looking statements, or otherwise.

Although we believe that the assumptions underlying our forward-looking statements are reasonable, any of these assumptions, and therefore also the forward-looking statements based on these assumptions, could themselves prove to be inaccurate. Given the significant uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking statements included in this document, our inclusion of this information is not a representation or guarantee by us that our objectives and plans will be achieved. Annualized, pro forma, projected and estimated numbers are used for illustrative purpose only, are not forecasts and may not reflect actual results. Additionally, statements as to market share, industry data and our market position are based on the most currently available data available to us and our estimates regarding market position or other industry data included in this document or otherwise discussed by us involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including as set forth above.

Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made and we will not update these forward-looking statements unless required by applicable law. With regard to these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this document may not occur, and we caution you against unduly relying on these forward-looking statements.

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PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

Skillsoft is a global leader in corporate digital learning, serving more than 75% of the Fortune 1000, customers in over 160 countries, and a community of learners of more than 90 million globally. Skillsoft’s primary learning solutions include: (i) Percipio, an intelligent and immersive digital learning platform; (ii) Global Knowledge, a global provider of authorized information technology & development training and professional skills; (iii) Codecademy, an online learning platform for technical skills that uses an innovative, scalable approach to online coding education; (iv) Pluma,  which offers individualized coaching through a digital platform that provides executive-quality coaching that is personal yet scalable; and (v) SumTotal, a SaaS-based Human Capital Management (“HCM”) solution with a leading Talent Development platform.

The Company provides enterprise learning solutions designed to prepare organizations for the future of work, enable them to overcome critical skill gaps, drive demonstrable behavior-change, and unlock the potential in one of their most important assets: their people. The Company’s award-winning, AI-driven, immersive learning platform, Percipio, is purpose built to make learning easier, more accessible, and more effective. Percipio is an open, modern and extensible platform designed to meet all of the needs of the enterprise customer. Skillsoft offers a comprehensive suite of premium, original, and authorized partner content, including one of the broadest and deepest libraries of leadership & business, technology & developer, and compliance curricula. With access to a broad spectrum of learning options (including video, audio, books, bootcamps, live events, practice labs and individualized coaching), organizations can meaningfully increase learner engagement and retention. In addition, we believe our recent acquisition of Codecademy will further strengthen our content library, enhance the Percipio platform, broaden our customer reach and create significant cross selling opportunities, positioning us for faster growth.

The corporate digital learning industry is rapidly growing, driven by significant tailwinds as organizations focus on upskilling, reskilling, and future-proofing their workforces and the accelerated shift from in-person training to digital training due, in part, to the significant and likely permanent shift to largely remote and distributed workforces triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic and increased emphasis on talent driven by the “great resignation.” The war for talent, labor shortages, wage inflation, hybrid work, early retirements, and burnout among those who stay behind all contribute to this growing demand. According to McKinsey, 87% of companies worldwide either currently have skills gaps or believe they will within the next few years, and core skills are changing at an unprecedented pace. In a recent survey conducted by Deloitte, the vast majority of CEO’s cited labor and skills shortages as the number one threat to their business in the coming year – ahead of the pandemic, supply chain disruption, inflation and market instability, cybersecurity, and political instability. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, technology will radically transform 1.1 billion jobs by 2030.  CEOs, Chief People Officers, and the companies they and their teams lead need to transform their current workforce into one adapted for tomorrow’s demands. We believe these factors present a significant market opportunity for our solutions.

Our Industry

The corporate learning and human capital management markets are large, growing, and fragmented.

The global corporate learning market is large and growing. We estimate the market size of the global professional learning industry to be approximately $300 billion. We estimate that the total addressable market for global professional digital learning — the segment served by Skillsoft —  was approximately $28 billion in 2021, with many favorable characteristics:

The global professional digital learning market is anticipated to grow at approximately a 10% compound annual growth rate (“CAGR”) through 2025, similar to recent years, providing a strong foundation for organic growth;
​While the market is competitive, it remains highly fragmented and includes pure-play training companies, in-house training teams, direct-to-consumer technology providers and integrators, business consulting firms, and

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numerous free and fee-based online providers. The market lacks a single dominant player serving all customer market segments;
​We hold a strong competitive position in the market, reinforced through the acquisition of Global Knowledge. The majority of our competitors are smaller, consumer-focused content providers that lack our revenue, depth of content, and the platform capabilities offered by Percipio. This dynamic offers both a favorable competitive environment and an opportunity for expansion via inorganic growth; and
​Through our traditional offering and through the acquisition of Global Knowledge, we have a history of longevity, establishing long-term relationships with Fortune 500 and other customers.

HCM applications and services, an approximately $17.6 billion global market, help organizations manage and maintain their workforce via efficient management, performance management, compensation management and succession planning. Learning Management Systems (“LMS”), SumTotal’s core market, is a critical component of the HCM space, representing approximately 17% of the overall size, based on our estimates. Both the HCM and LMS markets exhibit favorable characteristics:

We expect the global HCM market to grow at an approximately 7% CAGR in the near future due to the increased demand in automated recruiting processes and centralized administration of digital human resources activities.
We expect the corporate LMS market to grow at approximately a 5% CAGR in the near future, consistent with recent years. As digital learning continues to play a larger role in corporate talent development initiatives, LMS are consistently tasked with providing more robust analytics and managing workflow and content delivery needs, particularly in large global enterprises.

Corporate learning is increasingly important to rapidly innovating industries.

Industries around the world are increasingly moving towards new business models oriented around big data, cloud, cybersecurity, mobility, and digital commerce, creating demand for new job roles and associated certifications. This rapid innovation requires professionals to enhance their skills to remain current on technologies. These shifts have increased the value of corporate training and staff development for multinational corporations in a highly competitive marketplace, further amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. In connection with this, businesses are also facing increased expectations that ongoing training and skills development programs will be available as a fundamental employee benefit and hence critical to employee retention.

The corporate training market transformation, from in-person training to digital learning, is accelerating.

While there is a role for in-person training, we have been observing a long-term market transformation from in-person training to digital learning platforms. Employers are increasingly spending corporate training budgets on digital learning, which can provide a more cost-effective, flexible, and comprehensive solution as compared to legacy in-person training formats. We have also observed factors that may contribute to the acceleration of digital learning adoption, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which has given rise to hybrid and remote work, resulted in restrictions on travel and in-person meetings, and increased reliance on digital tools for connection and collaboration. More significantly, technological advancements over the past decade, including mobile technology, video on demand, micro-learning, and artificial intelligence have significantly increased digital adoption, learner engagement, and efficacy of digital learning.

Modern learners expect a more personalized learning experience.

While learners in the past have generally focused on content quality, expectations related to content delivery and the learning environment are increasing. Today’s learners are often looking for a more personalized learning journey, with an ability to choose where, when, and how to learn. This has led to the rise of cloud-based, multi-modal offerings such as ebooks, audiobooks, videos, and courses, which can be consumed on smart devices. Furthermore, employees view training platforms not only as a means of honing existing skills needed today, but also as opportunities to learn new skills needed for tomorrow.

Professionals believe that additional training is critical to remain competent and prepare for the jobs of tomorrow.

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The increasingly technical nature of today’s job requirements and rapid pace of digital transformation are contributing to a growing need for continuous training.

Our Offerings

We operate in three segments, Content, Global Knowledge, and SumTotal.

Content

Skillsoft Percipio, our advanced, award-winning, and highly engaging intelligent learning experience platform.

Skillsoft Percipio provides AI-driven personalization and content recommendations for each learner to enhance their connection with the content and improve their level of engagement. In addition, Percipio’s data tracking capabilities support the platform’s ability to inform best practices for our customers and deliver insights for product enhancement. We believe our findings have validated that user engagement drives customer retention. Select platform capabilities include:

Open Platform: Business administrators can upload their own proprietary content alongside Skillsoft original content and other third-party learning assets into channels that are unique for their business. Learners then access content via search, assignments, and recommendations within the platform. In addition, Percipio has the functionality to consolidate and deliver content from other providers, and we partner with numerous content developers to enhance our course offerings.
​Custom Channels and Journeys: Percipio combines content from various sources into learning journeys. We offer more than 700 skill-based learning paths on a wide range of topics. Additionally, for learners focused on career aspirations, we offer nearly 100 Aspire Journeys, which are offerings that deliver curated learning paths for specific competencies that can also include live instruction capabilities, offering a unique blended learning experience.
​Administrator-Promoted Content and Flexible Assignments: Employers can facilitate the assignment of online training with one-time-only or recurring options. Assignments can be set to recur by last completion date or due date, with intervals determined by the administrator.
​Powerful Tracking and In-Depth Reporting: Employers can utilize comprehensive filtering, data export options, and individual and group reporting to view status and training progress. Administrators can also create and save customized reports and configure automatic emails, with training results sent to line managers or supervisors to help drive training completions.
​Training Groups: Employers can assign training to individual users or defined user groups. Administrators can create user groups, or “audiences,” based on demographics such as job role, corporate division, or geographic location.
​Records Management: Employers can track users’ access to and completion of assigned courses, while maintaining a complete training history for each user. Users and administrators can access a comprehensive view of an individual’s training history, including recurring assignments.

The platform’s broad capabilities are complemented by the impact the platform has on the learner. The platform facilitates an efficient, learner-focused learning environment, supported by content discovery tools that allow the learner to identify content that fit best with their learning objectives and schedules. In addition, the platform’s interactive interface displays personalized activity feeds, showing recent activity and training assignments to ensure the learner is apprised of both developmental progress and expectations. Since the platform’s inception, we have deployed many value-additive features to further drive learner engagement, including AI-driven email campaigns as well as personalized mobile device notifications.

Percipio’s efficacy is supported by customer performance. As compared to customers on our legacy platform, Skillport, customers on Percipio have performed better since January 2020 across a variety of key performance indicators, such as number of active learners, learning hours per user, and number of content launches, among others. This has translated into improved renewal rates for Percipio as compared to our legacy Skillport platform.

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In March 2022, Percipio received Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (“FedRAMP”) authorization. As a FedRAMP authorized product, Percipio will be added to the federal government’s online portal of approved cloud service offerings. In addition to benefitting government agencies seeking to address critical skills gaps, the FedRAMP comprehensive security authorization underscores the security of the Percipio platform.

Migrating customers from Skillport to Percipio is one of our key areas of focus and we anticipate completing the migration to Percipio during our fiscal year ended January 31, 2023. As of January 31, 2022, approximately 90% of the content segment annual recurring revenue base has contracted for Percipio. Our approach to the migration process has been both focused and customer-centric. To support Skillport customers as they migrate, we have entered into agreements to provide both continued access to that platform while offering new access to Percipio (“Dual Deployment”).

Pluma

On June 30, 2021, we acquired Pluma, Inc. The acquisition enhances our leadership development portfolio product, adds a new modality to our blended learning model, and allows the Company to now offer a premium individualized experience that provides executive-quality coaching that is personal yet scalable.

Content Library

Our nearly 700 skill-based learning paths support today’s highly sought-after competencies in leadership and business skills, IT, software and application development, data science as well as workforce safety and compliance. Our robust content library of 200,000+ content assets, which include videos, digital books, book summaries, audiobooks, labs, job aids, and other learning resources is segmented into the following three customer markets: (i) Leadership and Business, (ii) Technology and Developer, and (iii) Compliance.

We actively invest in and refresh our content offerings, providing learners with access to the latest insights and knowledge to facilitate an engaging and effective learning environment; such investment ensures our products incorporate relevant, thought-leading content and helps us drive greater learner engagement and deliver measurable outcomes for the learner and for their companies. The key content verticals in our library include:

Leadership and Business:  With approximately 2,500 courses across 40 subjects, our Leadership and Business training addresses the personal and business technical skills at the intersection of digital business strategy, leadership practice, and managerial effectiveness. Select offerings from our library include the Skillsoft Leadership Development Program (“SLDP”), which focuses on digital leader competencies, and our Leader camps a suite of live streaming events and virtual workshops that provide access to best-selling authors and thought leaders.
Technology and Developer:   With approximately 9,000 courses and labs across nearly 100 subjects, our Technology and Developer offering addresses the IT skills gap head-on, empowering technology and developer professionals to acquire the modern, in-demand skills. We have more than 500 Learning Paths for technology professionals and approximately 170 Technology and Developer certification curricula, which prepare learners for the associated vendor exams. Our portfolio is comprehensive and flexible, offering micro-learning video courses, digital books, audiobooks, and virtual coding labs as well as more than 20,000 learner skills assessments.  We further enhanced our capabilities in this area through the recent acquisition of Codecademy.
Compliance:   With approximately 3,500 courses across 40 subjects, our Compliance offering supports over 500 critical risk topics to address an increasingly global workforce. We offer a catalogue of environmental health and safety and legal compliance courseware to suit organizations in a wide variety of industries, in particular, those with heavy regulatory burdens. Through partnerships with certified legal experts and safety professionals, we ensure our content remains current with regulatory requirements, allowing organizations to focus on strategic business operations.

Global Knowledge

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Through Global Knowledge we are able to further assist customers throughout their lifelong technology learning journey by offering relevant and up-to-date skills training through instructor-led (in-person “classroom” or online “virtual”) and self-paced (“on-demand”), vendor certified, and other proprietary offerings. Global Knowledge’s vendors include the world’s largest technology providers who partner with Global Knowledge to help develop the skills that drive consumption of their products in their customer accounts. In addition, certification authorities from around the globe trust Global Knowledge to equip organizations around the world with skills. In instances such as these, Global Knowledge’s partners’ growth and the adoption of their products are materially supported by having a skilled installed base of employees. Global Knowledge also offers a wide breadth of training topics and delivery modalities (classroom, virtual, on-demand) both on a subscription and transactional basis, driving customer retention and growth. We believe that Global Knowledge’s wide breadth of training topics and delivery modalities will assist us in expanding our product offering and will act as a key driver for existing customer retention and new business growth given customer demand for a fulsome multi-modal offering.

Global Knowledge’s focus is to offer key technology and business skills content with flexibility on format. This allows Global Knowledge to address multiple segments, from just-in-time on-demand content for individuals, to team-oriented online training, or alternatively, customized training programs that simulate both the individual and team in a client environment. Global Knowledge currently offers over 2,500 courses annually across a range of subject areas, including over 750 on-demand courses and over 2,000 instructor-led virtual courses. Through these courses, Global Knowledge provides training to over 210,000 corporate professionals across 25,000 sessions per annum with a blue-chip customer base.

We believe Global Knowledge’s ability to provide training for both authorized and other content across multiple modalities is superior compared to many of its peers and provides Global Knowledge a significant competitive advantage in the areas that it serves. In addition, Global Knowledge’s flexible delivery model provides superior learning retention, choice, and convenience for its customers and is a defining characteristic when customers select Global Knowledge’s product and services.

SumTotal

SumTotal offers one of the industry’s most advanced talent management solution. SumTotal’s Enterprise — Talent Development solution delivers an extensible, highly configurable solution for customers with complex learning needs. The talent suite is geared to manage complex workflows for large enterprises and customers in highly regulated segments with mission-critical compliance requirements. The platform can effectively manage a wide range of content solutions and harmonize sophisticated learning environments. These capabilities are evidenced by SumTotal’s customer base, which consists of leaders across regulated industries, such as the airline and financial services industries. In addition, SumTotal’s professional services team complements the software’s expansive capabilities, allowing customers to implement bespoke solutions, catered to their unique and evolving learning needs. The talent suite holistically links performance management, compensation, and succession planning processes to LMS and workforce management data, providing a differentiating level of human resources (HR) analytics and ecosystem harmonization.

In addition, SumTotal provides a comprehensive suite of complementary products and services, which provide both SaaS add-ons for customers and one-time services designed to ease implementation and tailor the product to best meet a customer’s needs. SumTotal’s full product suite includes:

Enterprise — Talent Development: Includes LMS and talent management software, which are often sold as a bundle. Learn Enterprise is sold primarily to large organizations;
​Enterprise — Growth: SumTotal’s SMB (small and medium-size business) market solution;
​Other Solutions: SumTotal provides a suite of other HCM products and services such as workforce management and payroll that, which when paired with our core Learn Enterprise product, can increase customer retention and address a customer’s need to integrate learning and talent management with the rest of the HCM ecosystem; and
​Professional Services: Provides implementation services to customers during both the onboarding process and the platform upgrade process. The Professional Services team also works with customers to customize and configure our products to fit their requirements.

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Our Strategy

Our vision is to be the most highly valued provider of learning solutions, preparing the workforce of today with the skills of tomorrow. When we say valuable, we mean to our customers, our leaners, our communities, our team members, and our shareholders. We believe we can achieve this vision by demonstrating leadership in the following areas:

Platform – Learners benefit from an open-source, immersive, AI-driven platform delivering seamless, engaging experiences.

Content – Our customers demand breadth and quality of content in the enterprise-critical segments of Leadership and Business, Technology and Developer, and Compliance. Our ability to offer content in each of these segments through a common platform is a key differentiator of our offerings that leads to higher retention rates.

Go-to-Market – Enterprise sales & marketing capabilities supported by a strong brand will ensure our industry-leading solutions are understood by our target audiences.

Key enablers for us to execute our strategy include the following:

Culture of Leadership and Learning Central to our strategy is a high performing and inclusive organization and an environment where all team members are able to do their best work.  We intend to transform the culture of Skillsoft into one built upon an inspiring purpose, vision and values.  Our objective is to be recognized as a role model of learning and development powered by the use of our own products.

Operational Excellence We will seek to reduce cost and enhance quality through a number of important initiatives intended to both support revenue growth and improve margins. With recent and future acquisitions, we intend to​ standardize, upgrade and integrate back-office systems and processes to realize efficiencies while also improving employee and customer experiences.

Disciplined M&A and Strategic Partnerships We intend to grow our business through acquisitions and strategic partnerships that enhance our content offerings, add capability to our Percipio platform, and enable us to deliver more value to customers and expand into new vertical markets and geographies. Importantly, we believe our platform and our large sales force and customer base position us to effectively integrate acquisitions in a highly accretive fashion. In addition, the open architecture of Percipio allows us to quickly deploy content and technology solutions available from third-parties that are complimentary to our propriety offerings, which is attractive to potential third-party partners who wish to access our strong base of enterprise customers, allowing us to improve the value proposition to our customers while participating in incremental revenue opportunities.

Our Human Capital

We believe we have assembled a word-class management team that will differentiate us from our competitors and guide Skillsoft through its next phase of growth.  Our leadership team is led by CEO Jeffrey Tarr. Mr. Tarr is an experienced public company CEO with a track record of transforming tech-enabled content companies into industry leaders and creating value for shareowners. In addition to Mr. Tarr, we are led by an executive team with deep and highly relevant expertise at companies such as SAP, IBM, Dell, and IHS Markit among others.

As of January 31, 2022, we had 2,943 regular, full-time employees. Global Knowledge also deploys a network of over 600 instructors, of which approximately 100 are in-house employees, most of which have been training students with Global Knowledge over 15 years. Those investments are focused on talent transformation and optimization through strategic and inclusive talent acquisition, talent development, and cultural enablement. To identify and attract top talent and motivate and retain our people, we continue to evolve our human capital systems, processes, and programs. Our organization’s objectives include identifying and attracting top talent to fill open positions and incentivizing, developing,

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and retaining our people. Further, recent diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives designed to support systemic, programmatic, and sustainable change have also been introduced.

Our Customers

As a leading provider in the corporate digital learning business, we serve more than 75% of the Fortune 1000, customers in over 160 countries, and a community of learners of more than 90 million globally.  We partner with more than 12,000 corporate customers and help them achieve their learning and development needs. Our solutions cater to both large and small enterprises across a wide range of industries. Our largest customers include Fortune 100 companies and government agencies, and many of these organizations have been customers for more than five years. We deliver our products in 29 different languages. Learners access Skillsoft content approximately one million times per month. Through Global Knowledge, we are able to provide training to over 210,000 corporate professionals across 25,000 sessions per annum with a blue-chip customer base.  No single customer represented more than 2% of revenue for the year ended January 31, 2022.

Our Competition

The corporate digital learning market is large and fragmented. Many of our peers are much smaller than us and do not have the long history we have of serving our customers. The market is highly competitive and we expect the market to remain competitive in the future due to its highly attractive qualities such as: (i) continued demand for high quality, deep, and broad digital content solutions, (ii) the market’s whitespace opportunity, which we believe is material given the estimated size of the total addressable market and the size of our peers, and (iii) the increased importance of digital learning, in part due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has accelerated the need for enterprises to adopt digital training solutions. Our direct and indirect competitors include, among others:

Within our Leadership and Business customer market, vendors such as LinkedIn Learning, CrossKnowledge, and Harvard ManageMentor, as well as OpenSesame;
​Within our Technology and Developer customer market, vendors such as Pluralsight and Udemy, as well as Safari (O’Reilly), Coursera, and Udacity; and
​Within our Compliance customer market, vendors such as Navex Global as well as LRN, SAI Global, J.J. Keller, and UL-PURESafety.

The market for talent management software is competitive, comprised of leading enterprise players and smaller peers. This market faces evolving customer needs and frequent disruptions driven by new technologies, products, and services. Our sales opportunities are competitive and often involve requests for proposals. SumTotal’s direct and indirect competitors include, among others:

LMS vendors, including Cornerstone OnDemand and Workday; and
Other competitors including ADP, Docebo, Kronos, Oracle, and SAP SuccessFactors.

Our Intellectual Property

Our success is contingent upon the protection of our rights in intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of copyright and trademark laws as well as license agreements, intellectual property assignment agreements, confidentiality procedures, and employee invention assignment agreements to protect our proprietary rights. In certain cases, we have also entered into, and will continue to enter into, confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties to protect the distribution of confidential information. We believe our intellectual property rights are a crucial component of our business.

As of January 31, 2022, we did not have any patents and pending patent applications in the United States or abroad. We have an ongoing trademark and service mark registration program pursuant to which we register our brand names and product names, taglines, and logos in the United States and other countries to the extent we deem appropriate. We also have common law rights in some unregistered trademarks that were established over years of use.

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Seasonality

Our business is subject to significant seasonality in bookings and billings, with the fourth quarter representing about 40% of annual volume.  Our Content business experiences the most seasonality, with the fourth quarter representing about 50% of annual volume.  We generally recognize revenue from subscription fees ratably over the term of the contract; thus, while our billings are seasonal, revenue recognition is not subject to significant seasonality. However, accounts receivable and deferred revenue balances as well as cash flow are impacted significantly by our seasonality.

Recent Developments

On December 22, 2021, we announced a definitive agreement to acquire Codecademy (the “Codecademy Merger”), a leading online learning platform for technical skills. Codecademy is an innovative and popular learning platform providing high-demand technical skills to approximately 40 million registered learners in nearly every country worldwide. The platform offers interactive, self-paced courses and hands-on learning in 14 programming languages across multiple domains such as application development, data science, cloud and cybersecurity. We believe the Codecademy acquisition will further enhance our Technology and Developer offerings and differentiate us from our competitors.  The Codecademy Merger closed on April 4, 2022 for total consideration of approximately $390.3 million, consisting of the issuance of 30,374,427 million common shares and a cash payment of $207.6 million.  The cash portion of the consideration was funded through the combination of the issuance of $160.0 million of term loans under our existing term loan facility and cash on hand.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K” or “Annual Report”), before making an investment decision. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in these risk factors and elsewhere in this Annual Report or subsequent filings that we make with the SEC, alone or in combination with other events or circumstances, may have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition, and results of operations. You should also carefully consider the following risk factors in addition to the other information included in this Annual Report, including matters addressed in the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” We may face additional risks and uncertainties that are not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, which may also impair our business, cash flows, results or financial condition. Therefore, the risk factors below should not be considered a complete list of potential risks that we may face. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes to the financial statements included herein.

Risk Factor Summary

Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These risks are discussed more fully below and include, but are not limited to the following:

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

The impact of U.S. and worldwide economic trends, financial market conditions, geopolitical events, natural disasters, climate change, public health crises, the COVID-19 pandemic, political crises, or other catastrophic events could materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.
Market adoption of online learning solutions is still new, the market for instructor led, synchronous, in-classroom learning may continue to change and new products introduced may not be successful.

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Increased competition may result in decreased demand for our products and services including our recent acquisitions of Global Knowledge, Pluma and Codeacademy.
Failure to effectively optimize and retain senior level executives and increase the productivity of our sales teams may impede our growth.
We rely on third parties to provide us with learning content, subject matter expertise, and content productions and our relationships with these third parties may be terminated or fall below our requirements.
System disruptions, vulnerability from security risks to our technology infrastructure, breaches in our security measures, ineffective performance or errors in our platform could cause us to lose customers or damage our reputation, negatively impacting our business.
A loss of Global Knowledge’s status as an authorized training provider could adversely affect the Global Knowledge business.
We may be unable to protect our proprietary rights and unauthorized use of our intellectual property may result in development of products or services that compete with ours.
We might require additional capital to support our growth, and this capital might not be available.
Increasing scrutiny and evolving expectations from customers, partners, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders with respect to our environmental, social and governance practices may impose additional costs on us, expose us to new or additional risks, or harm our reputation.

Legal, Regulatory and Related Risks

Our business could be affected by new governmental regulations regarding the speed and reliability of Internet and the regulation of course content, which could subject us to legal action.
Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws or regulations relating to career training services, international operations and privacy or data security, could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
Changes in tax laws, unfavorable resolution of tax examinations, or exposure to additional tax liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

Risks Related to our Indebtedness and Certain Other Obligations

Our degree of leverage could have a material adverse effect on our business and limit our ability to plan for or respond to changes in our business.
Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

Risks Related to our Previous Capital Structure and Resulting Chapter 11 Cases

The ongoing effects of our prior capital structure, including our emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases, could adversely affect our business and relationships and may impact our ability to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.
Information contained in our historical financial statements will not be comparable to the information contained in our financial statements after the application of fresh-start accounting.

Risks Related to our Internal Control over Financial Reporting and Critical Accounting Policies

Failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, or operations failing to meet the expectations of securities analysts and investors could result in our failure to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Prior to the business combinations on June 11, 2021, each predecessor company, including Churchill Capital Corp II, Software Luxembourg Holding S.A and Albert DE Holdings Inc had reported material weaknesses in internal controls over financial reporting in the prior year.

As a public company, and particularly after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur previously. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act,

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the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of NYSE, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on U.S. reporting public companies, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and corporate governance practices. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. These rules and regulations are often subject to varying interpretations, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices.

While we remain an emerging growth company, we will not be required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm. To prepare for eventual compliance with Section 404, once we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we will be engaged in a process to document and evaluate our internal control over financial reporting, which is both costly and challenging. In this regard, we will need to continue to dedicate internal resources, potentially engage outside consultants and adopt a detailed work plan to assess and document the adequacy of internal control over financial reporting, continue steps to improve control processes as appropriate, validate through testing that controls are functioning as documented and implement a continuous reporting and improvement process for internal control over financial reporting. Despite our efforts, there is a risk that we will not be able to conclude, within the prescribed timeframe or at all, that our internal control over financial reporting is effective as required by Section 404. If we identify one or more material weaknesses, it could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.

Risks to Skillsoft Following the Codecademy Merger

Skillsoft may be unable to successfully integrate Codecademy’s business into its business or achieve the anticipated benefits of the Codecademy Merger, and results may suffer if Skillsoft does not effectively manage its expanded operations following the Codecademy Merger.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A common stock

If the benefits of the recent transactions completed by Skillsoft do not meet the expectations of financial analysts, the market price of the Class A common stock of the Skillsoft may decline.
Our Derivative Instruments are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of our Derivative Instruments could have a material effect on our financial results.
There could be significant changes or decline in the price of our Class A common stock and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result, which may be dilutive to existing stockholders.
If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about Skillsoft’s business or if they downgrade the Class A common stock of Skillsoft’s sector, the price of the Class A common stock and trading volume could decline.
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.
The NYSE may not continue to list our securities or a market for our securities may not continue, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.
Prosus and its affiliates and Skillsoft’s consultant, the Klein Group, may have interests that differ from those of other stockholders.

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

The impact of U.S. and worldwide economic trends, financial market conditions, geopolitical events, natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, or other catastrophic events could materially and adversely affect our business, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with adverse economic conditions in the United States and globally, including economic slowdown, inflation, and the disruption, volatility and tightening of credit and capital markets. Unfavorable global or

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regional economic conditions could materially and adversely impact our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and other adverse weather and climate conditions; public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic; political crises, such as terrorist attacks, war, and other political instability, such as the invasion of Ukraine by Russia and the conflict in the region; or other catastrophic events, whether occurring in the United States or internationally, have and could continue to disrupt our operations or the operations of one or more of our third-party providers and vendors. To the extent any of these events occur, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our quarterly operating results may fluctuate significantly, limiting your ability to evaluate historical financial results and increasing the likelihood that our results will fall below market analysts’ expectations.

Our operating results have historically fluctuated, and our operating results may in the future continue to fluctuate, as a result of factors, which include, without limitation:

the period between our initial contact with a potential customer and the purchase of our products by that customer, which typically ranges from three to eighteen months or more;
the size, timing, and successful closing of new/renewal agreements and upgrades;
the speed of the migration of existing customers to our new platform, and the announcement, introduction and acceptance of new products, product enhancements and technologies by us and our competitors;
the mix of sales between our field sales force, our other direct sales channels and our telesales channels;
general conditions in the U.S. and/or the international economy;
the loss of any significant customers;
changes in contractual terms including our pricing model;
delays in availability of new products;
product or service quality problems;
seasonality —due to the budget and purchasing cycles of our customers, we expect order intake and billings will generally be strongest in the second half of our fiscal year and weakest in the first half of our fiscal year;
the spending patterns of our customers, including their internal budgeting, procurement, and approval processes;
royalty rates;
litigation costs and expenses;
non-recurring charges related to acquisitions;
growing competition that may result in price reductions and customer loss; and
currency fluctuations.

Most of our expenses, such as interest, rent, and most employee compensation excluding sales commissions do not vary directly with revenue and are difficult to adjust in the short-term. As a result, if revenue for a particular quarter is below our expectations, we could not proportionately reduce operating expenses for that quarter. Any such revenue shortfall would, therefore, have a disproportionate effect on our expected operating results for that quarter.

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted, and may continue to impact, our business and results of operations in volatile and unpredictable ways.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business has included and may in the future include:

increases in operational expenses and other costs related to requirements implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic;
adverse effects on economies and financial markets globally or in various markets throughout the world, potentially leading to a prolonged economic downturn or reductions in business spending, which may result in decreased net revenue, gross margins, or earnings and/or in increased expenses;
reduced sales as a result of restrictions on travel, limiting the ability to stage in-person demonstrations, as well as prompting potential customers to defer purchase decisions given concerns over implementation of new solutions;
workforce disruptions due to illness, quarantines, governmental actions, other restrictions, and/or the social distancing measures we have taken to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at certain of our locations

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around the world in an effort to protect the health and well-being of our employees and customers and of the communities in which we operate (including working from home, restricting the number of employees attending events or meetings in person, limiting the number of people in our offices at any one time, further restricting access to our facilities, suspending employee travel and the inability to meet in person with customers);
the inability for customers to pay based on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their businesses;
adverse effects on employee productivity and performance if required to work remotely for an even longer period of time;
increases in health and welfare program costs;
the inability to procure the required equipment or services from partners and suppliers in a timely manner;
requests from customers to reduce their spend with us as a result of workforce reductions that they have had to undertake;
increased vulnerability to cyberattacks due to the significant number of employees working remotely; and
our management team continuing to commit significant time, attention and resources to monitoring the COVID-19 pandemic and seeking to mitigate its effects on our business and workforce.

The COVID-19 pandemic may also negatively impact the financial resources available to learners or the operating budgets of our partners or customers, any of which could in turn negatively impact our business and operating results.

We may continue to experience an adverse impact to our business and the value of our Class A common stock as a result of its global economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including any recession that has occurred or may occur in the future. Further, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows, it may also heighten many of the other risks described in this Annual Report. The ultimate extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, and results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. These impacts, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Such effect may be exacerbated in the event the pandemic and the measures taken in response to it, and their effects, persist for an extended period of time, or if there is a resurgence of the outbreak. Under any of these circumstances, the resumption of normal business operations may be delayed or hampered by lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, partners, and customers.

Demand for our products and services is susceptible to general global market and economic conditions.

Weakness in the United States, the European Union (the “EU”) and/or the worldwide economy has had and could continue to have a negative effect on demand for our products and our results of operations. Companies may not view training products and services as critical to the success of their businesses. If these companies continue to experience declines in their business, whether as a result of adverse economic conditions, competitive issues or other factors, they may decrease or forgo employee education and training expenditures to lower their expenses and may do so before limiting their other expenditures. In addition, during economic downturns, companies may slow the rate at which they pay us or may become unable to pay their debts as they become due, which would have a negative effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Further, the United Kingdom (the “UK”) withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020, pursuant to a transitionary withdrawal agreement with the EU that in substance maintains the pre-withdrawal, status quo until the end of 2020. On December 24, 2020, the UK and the EU entered into a trade and cooperation agreement, effective January 1, 2021 (the “Brexit Trade Agreement”), which governs, among other things, trade between the UK and the EU. The full impact of the Brexit Trade Agreement and its related consequences remain uncertain, including with respect to ongoing negotiations between the UK and EU and new trade agreements with global trading partners. In addition, conflicts in the Middle East, Ukraine, and elsewhere, and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have created many economic and political uncertainties which have impacted worldwide markets. These global economic and political conditions may impact our business in a number of ways. The revenue growth and potential profitability of our business depends on demand for digital learning content and enterprise human capital management application software generally and for learning and talent development solutions in particular. We sell our products primarily to large, mid-sized, and small business organizations whose businesses fluctuate based on general economic and business conditions.

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In addition, a portion of our customer contract value is attributable to the number of users of our products at each of our customers, which in turn is influenced by the employment and hiring patterns of our customers and potential customers globally. To the extent that economic uncertainty or weak economic conditions cause our customers and potential customers to freeze or reduce their headcount, demand for our products may be negatively affected. Additionally, economic downturns have historically resulted in overall reductions in spending on information technology and learning and talent development solutions as well as pressure from customers and potential customers for extended billing terms. If economic, political, or market conditions deteriorate, or if there is uncertainty around these conditions, our customers and potential customers may elect to decrease their information technology and people development budgets by deferring or reconsidering product purchases, which would limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our operating results.

Market adoption of online learning solutions is relatively new and may not grow as we expect, which may harm our business and results of operations.

Our future success will depend in part on the growth, if any, in the demand for online learning solutions. The market for online learning solutions is less mature than the market for in-person learning and training, which many businesses currently utilize, and these businesses may be slow or unwilling to migrate from these legacy approaches. We cannot predict whether shifts in the traditional models of training as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., willingness to adopt remote, online and asynchronous learning and training) will continue as COVID-19 vaccines and treatment options have become more widely available, many educational institutions have re-opened their campuses, and businesses have reversed or materially limited remote work policies. It is difficult to predict learner or partner demand for our platform, learner or partner adoption and renewal, the rate at which existing learners and partners expand their engagement with our platform, the size and growth rate of the market for our platform, the entry of competitive offerings into the market, or the success of existing competitive offerings. It may take customers a substantial amount of time and resources to fully transition to an online platform or companies may face delays in doing so due to budget constraints, weakening economic conditions, or other factors. We cannot assure you that adoption of our platform will also increase as market demand increases. If the market for online learning solutions does not grow as we expect or our platform does not achieve widespread adoption, it could result in reduced customer spending, learner and partner attrition, and decreased revenue, any of which would adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Increased competition may result in decreased demand for our products and services, which may result in reduced revenue and gross profits and loss of market share.

The market for corporate learning and talent development solutions is highly fragmented, rapidly evolving, and competitive. In addition to increased competition from new companies entering the market, established companies are entering the market through acquisitions of smaller companies, which directly compete with us, and this trend is expected to continue. We may also face competition from publishing companies, educational institutions, vendors of enterprise application software, and human resource outsourcers, including those vendors with whom we have formed development and marketing alliances. Our primary sources of direct competition are:

third-party suppliers of instructor-led information technology, software development, compliance, business, leadership management, and professional skills education and training;
enterprise software application providers with solutions they have developed to meet the needs of the human capital management;
technology companies that offer learning courses covering their own technology products;
suppliers of digital or distance learning solutions;
free learning content;
internal education and training departments and human resources outsourcers of potential customers;
value-added resellers and network integrators; and
educational institutions.

Growing competition may result in price reductions, reduced revenue and gross profits, and loss of market share, any one of which would have a material adverse effect on our business. Current and potential competitors have and may have substantially greater financial, technical, sales, marketing, and other resources, as well as greater name recognition, and

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we may face increasing price pressures from competitors as buyers demand more value for their learning and talent development budgets. Accordingly, we may be unable to provide digital learning and talent development solutions that compare favorably with new technology-led techniques, other interactive training software or human capital management platforms, or new learning solutions. Our future success will depend upon the extent to which we are able to develop and implement products which address emerging market requirements on a cost effective and timely basis. Product development is risky because it is difficult to foresee developments in technology, coordinate technical personnel, and identify and eliminate design flaws. Any significant delay in releasing new products could have a material adverse effect on the ultimate success of our products and could reduce sales of predecessor products.

Emerging technologies also impact the competitive landscape for learning and talent development solutions. New content development methodologies and/or features and functionality that enhance the learner experience could adversely impact our ability to compete in the market. New market entrants that provide technologies that improve the content delivery and/or management of learning solutions could also increase the level of competition in the market. In addition, even if companies implement technology-based learning solutions, they may still choose to design, develop, deliver, or manage all or part of their learning and development programs internally. If the shift to technology-based learning is not realized, or if companies do not use the products and services of third parties to develop, deliver, or manage their learning and development needs, then some of our products and services may not achieve commercial success.

Lower priced solutions from competitors and access to free content will put pricing pressure on our solutions, and our ability to compete and maintain pricing will be dependent on our ability to differentiate our learning content and the learner experience our platform delivers.

New products introduced by us may not be successful.

An important part of our growth strategy is the continued development and enhancement of our existing offerings and the introduction of new learning content and the delivery of enhanced platform features and functionality. These activities can open new revenue streams, ensure the currency of our content portfolio, and support customer renewals and upgrades. Despite our efforts, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in updating and enhancing our current learning assets, developing and introducing new learning content, or delivering enhanced or new platform features and functionality, or that what we develop or introduce will be met with commercial acceptance. The failure to successfully introduce new, and enhance existing, learning content and platform functionality will not only hamper our growth prospects, but may also adversely impact our net income due to the development and marketing expenses associated with those offerings.

Failure to effectively optimize, retain, expand, and continue to increase the productivity of our direct sales teams and develop and expand our indirect sales channel may impede our growth.

We will need to continue to increase the productivity and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of our sales and marketing infrastructure in order to grow our customer base and our business. Identifying, recruiting, and onboarding these people and partners requires significant time, expense, and attention. Our business will be seriously harmed, and our financial resources will be wasted, if our efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue, and we may be required to sacrifice near-term growth and divert management time and attention in order to drive growth. In particular, if we are unable to successfully optimize our sales structure to strengthen core competencies, align incentives, improve retention, and grow new business, we may not be able to significantly increase our revenue, profitability, and/or free cash flows.

We rely on third parties to provide us with learning content and subject matter expertise and have content production relationships with third parties for our courses and learning content, and our relationships with these third parties may be terminated or fail to meet our requirements.

We rely on independent third parties and subject matter experts to provide us with some of the learning content for certain of our courses and learning assets based on learning objectives and specific instructional design templates which we develop. We also have arrangements with content development partners for the production of our learning courseware and other digital learning assets. If these group development partners and content providers/subject matter experts were to stop working with us, we cannot predict whether content would be available from reliable alternative sources or that we could

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enter into development partner relationships on reasonable terms and in a timely manner. In addition, our digital book collections rely on third-party publishers to provide the content that is in our digital book offerings. If one or more of these publishers were to terminate their license with us, we may not be able to find substitute publishers for such content or we may be forced to pay increased royalties to these publishers to continue our licenses with them.

In the event that we are unable to maintain or expand our current development relationships or enter into new development relationships, our operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. In addition, the collaborative nature of the development process under these arrangements may result in longer development times and less control over the timing of delivery of certain product offerings. Our strategic partners may from time to time renegotiate the terms of their agreements with us, which could result in changes to the royalty or other economic terms, which could reduce our gross margins.

The partners we rely on as part of the production process and for content or subject matter expertise may compete with us, which could harm our results of operations. Our agreements with these third parties generally do not restrict them from developing content for our competitors or from competing directly with us.

Our success is dependent on the reliability and consistent performance of our information systems and our Software as a Service (“SaaS”) infrastructure. System disruptions and vulnerability from security risks to our technology infrastructure could damage our reputation, negatively impacting our business.

Our success is highly dependent on the consistent performance of our information systems and Internet infrastructure. If our SaaS environment fails for any reason or if it experiences any unscheduled downtimes, even for only a short period, our business and reputation could be materially harmed. We have in the past experienced performance problems and unscheduled downtime, and these problems could recur. We currently rely on third parties for proper functioning of computer infrastructure, delivery of our learning and talent development applications and the performance of our destination site. Our systems and operations could be damaged or interrupted by fire, flood, power loss, telecommunications failure, break-ins, earthquake, financial patterns of hosting providers, and similar events. Any system failures could adversely affect customer usage of our solutions and user traffic results in any future quarters, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating results and harm our reputation with customers and commerce partners. The satisfactory performance, reliability, and availability of our website, computer infrastructure and learning platform are critical to our reputation and ability to attract and retain customers and commerce partners. We cannot accurately project the rate or timing of any increase in traffic to our website and, therefore, the integration and timing of any upgrades or enhancements required to facilitate any significant traffic increase to the website are uncertain. The failure to expand and upgrade our website or if we experience any system error, failure or extended down time, our business, reputation, financial condition or results of operations could be materially harmed.

Global Knowledge relies on hosted SaaS applications from third parties in order to operate critical functions of its business, including content delivery, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, billing, project management, and accounting and financial reporting. If these services become unavailable due to extended outages, interruptions, or because they are no longer available on commercially reasonable terms, Global Knowledge’s expenses could increase, the ability to manage finances could be interrupted, and processes for managing sales of Global Knowledge’s platform and supporting its customers could be impaired until equivalent services, if available, are identified, obtained, and implemented, all of which may negatively impact Global Knowledge’s results of operations and harm our business.

We are regularly subject to cybersecurity and other similar attacks. If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer data is otherwise obtained, our platforms may be perceived as insecure, we may lose existing customers or fail to attract new customers, our reputation may be harmed, and we may incur significant liabilities.

Unauthorized access to, or other security breaches of, our platforms or the other systems or networks used in our business, including those of our vendors, contractors, or those with which we have strategic relationships, could result in the loss, compromise or corruption of data, loss of business, reputational damage adversely affecting customer or investor confidence, regulatory investigations and orders, litigation, indemnity obligations, damages for contract breach, penalties for violation of applicable laws or regulations, significant costs for remediation, and other liabilities. Our

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cyber/professional liability insurance coverage for certain information security and privacy damages and claim expenses may be insufficient to compensate us for all liabilities that we may incur.

Our platform and the other systems or networks used in our business are also at risk for breaches as a result of third-party action, or employee, vendor, or contractor error or malfeasance. Security is one of the learning curricula we provide on our platform, which may cause our platform to be a target for hackers and others, and which may cause our brand, credibility, and reputation to be particularly sensitive to any security breaches. We have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses to prevent security breaches, including deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third-party experts and consultants. However, since the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until after they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period and, therefore, have a greater impact on our platform, the proprietary and other confidential data contained therein or otherwise stored or processed in our operations, and ultimately on our business.

Disruption to or failures of our platform could result in our customers becoming unsatisfied with our platform and could harm our reputation.

The performance and reliability of our platform and the underlying technology are critical to our operations, reputation, and ability to attract and retain partners and learners. Our partners rely on our platform to offer their courses and programs online, and learners must access our platform on a frequent and reliable basis. Our platform is complex and relies on infrastructure provided by third parties, and may contain defects, errors, or vulnerabilities, or may not perform as contemplated. These errors, defects, disruptions, breaches, or other performance problems with our platform could damage our or our partners’ reputations, decrease partner and learner satisfaction and retention, negatively impact our ability to attract new learners and partners, and could result in large indemnity payments to learners and partners for losses suffered or incurred in connection with any such defects or errors on our platform, or other liabilities relating to or arising from our platform. In addition, sustained or recurring disruptions in our platform or its underlying technology could adversely affect our and our partners’ compliance with applicable regulations and accrediting body standards.

Further, if we fail to accurately predict the rate or timing of the growth of our platform, we may be required to incur significant additional costs to maintain reliability. We also depend on the development and maintenance of the Internet infrastructure, including maintenance of reliable Internet networks with the necessary speed, data capacity, and security. If we experience failures in our technology infrastructure or do not expand our technology infrastructure successfully, then our ability to attract and retain partners and learners, our growth prospects, and our business would suffer.

We have experienced, and expect that in the future we will experience, interruptions, delays, and outages in service and availability from time to time due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions, and capacity constraints, which could affect the availability of services on our platform and prevent or inhibit the ability of learners to access or complete courses and programs on our platform. Any disruption in its services, or any failure of a third-party provider to handle the demands of our platform, could significantly harm our business and damage our reputation. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of the third-party providers that we use, and these facilities may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, cybersecurity attacks, terrorist attacks, power outages, and similar events or acts of misconduct.

If the mobile solutions available to our learners and partners are not effective, the use of our platform could decline.

Learners have been increasingly accessing our platform on mobile devices through our app in recent years. The smaller screen size and reduced functionality associated with some mobile devices may make the use of our platform more difficult or our partners may believe that online learning through such mobile devices is not effective. Learners accessing our network primarily on mobile devices may not enroll in the courses or the certification, degree, or other credentialing programs offered on our platform as often as those accessing our platform through personal computers, which could result in less revenue for us. If we are not able to provide our partners with the functionality to deliver a rewarding experience on mobile devices, their ability to attract learners to their programs may be harmed and, consequently, our business may suffer.

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As new mobile devices and mobile features are released, we may encounter problems in developing or supporting apps for them. In addition, supporting new devices and mobile device operating systems may require substantial time and resources.

The success of our mobile apps could also be harmed by factors outside our control, including actions taken by mobile app distributors; unfavorable treatment received by our mobile apps, especially as compared to competing apps, such as the placement of our mobile apps in a mobile app download store; increased costs in the distribution and use of our mobile app; or changes in mobile operating systems, such as iOS and Android, that degrade the functionality of our mobile website or mobile apps or that give preferential treatment to competitive offerings.

If our partners or customers, including learners, encounter difficulty accessing or using, or if they choose not to use, our mobile platform, our growth prospects and our business may be adversely affected.

Our business could be adversely affected if our products contain errors.

Software products contain known and undetected errors or “bugs” that result in product failures. The existence of bugs could result in loss of or delay in revenue, loss of market share, diversion of product development resources, injury to reputation or damage to efforts to build brand awareness, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Acquisitions, including our recent acquisitions of Global Knowledge, Pluma, and Codecademy, may not produce the benefits we anticipate and could harm our current operations.

One aspect of our business strategy is to pursue acquisitions of businesses or technologies that will contribute to our future growth. However, we may not be successful in identifying or consummating attractive acquisition opportunities. Moreover, any acquisitions we do consummate may not produce benefits commensurate with the purchase price we pay or our expectations for the acquisition. Finally, acquisitions involve numerous risks, including:

difficulties in integrating the technologies, operations, business systems, financial controls, and personnel of the acquired company;
failure to realize expected synergies or capture the value required for the acquisition to be successful;
difficulties in retaining or transitioning customers and employees of the acquired company;
diversion of management time and focus;
the incurrence of unanticipated expenses associated with the acquisition or the assumption of unknown liabilities or unanticipated financial, accounting or other problems of the acquired company; and
accounting charges related to the acquisition, including restructuring charges, transaction costs, write-offs of in-process research and development costs, and subsequent impairment charges relating to goodwill or other intangible assets acquired in the transaction.

We depend on senior leadership to manage and operate the business, and if we fail to retain and attract highly qualified employees our business could be harmed.

Our success is largely dependent on the personal efforts and abilities of our senior management. Failure to retain these executives, or the loss of certain additional senior management personnel or other key employees, could have a material adverse effect on our business and future prospects. We have recently made significant changes to our management team, including the appointment of multiple new executive officers.

Ours is a global business, and our success is also dependent, in part, on our ability to attract and retain qualified sales, marketing, and operational personnel capable of supporting a larger and more diverse worldwide customer base. The loss of a significant number of our technology, content or sales personnel and their services could be disruptive to our development efforts or customer relationships. In addition, if any of our key employees joins a competitor or decides to otherwise compete with us, we may experience a material disruption of our operations and business strategy, which may

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cause us to lose customers or increase operating expenses and may divert our attention as we seek to recruit replacements for the departed employees.

Our directors may encounter conflicts of interest involving us and other organizations with which they may be affiliated, including matters that involve corporate opportunities.

Certain of our directors are, and future directors may be, affiliated with other entities or businesses that may be complementary, competitive, or potentially competitive to our company. They may also in the future become affiliated with entities that are engaged in business or other activities similar to our business. Additionally, our officers and directors may become aware of investments, business opportunities, or information that may be appropriate for presentation to us as well as to other entities to which they owe a fiduciary duty. As a result, directors and officers may encounter a perceived or actual conflict of interest involving us and other entities with which they are or become affiliated.

Global Knowledge’s corporate training services business may be disproportionately impacted by an economic downturn.

Global Knowledge’s business of providing corporate training services is particularly sensitive to general economic conditions, as its corporate customers often defer or eliminate training services to control costs when facing financial pressure. Challenging economic conditions may therefore have a disproportionately negative impact on revenue from Global Knowledge’s corporate training services, which constitutes a significant portion of its revenue.

The market for instructor led, synchronous, in-classroom learning may continue to decline.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant and negative impact on in-classroom learning, as schools and other physical learning facilities were shut down in response to the global pandemic. As a result, the delivery of in-classroom learning has either been greatly curtailed or has pivoted to synchronous or asynchronous remote learning.

Global Knowledge’s future success will depend on its ability to offer clients the learning solutions they need in the format they desire and trust. It remains unclear what the lasting impact of the COVID-19 pandemic will be on the in-classroom learning market.

The growth of Global Knowledge’s on-demand subscription skills platform, GK Polaris, makes it difficult to evaluate the future prospects of the platform.

Global Knowledge launched its on-demand subscription skills platform GK Polaris in May 2020 and, as a result, forecasting Global Knowledge’s future results of operations for this platform is subject to a number of uncertainties, including Global Knowledge’s ability to effectively plan for and model future growth. Beginning in early 2020, Global Knowledge extended its offering to include GK Polaris, which enabled Global Knowledge to expand its addressable market, attract new users, and broaden its relationships with corporate customers. As such, any predictions about Global Knowledge’s future revenue and expenses with respect to this platform may not be as accurate as they could be if Global Knowledge had a longer operating history with its on-demand subscription platform or operated in a more predictable market. Global Knowledge encountered in the past, and may encounter in the future, risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries. If Global Knowledge’s assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties, which Global Knowledge uses to plan and operate its business, are incorrect or change, or if Global Knowledge does not address these risks adequately, its results of operations could differ materially from its expectations, as growth rates may slow, and its business may suffer.

A loss of Global Knowledge’s status as an authorized training provider with one or more key technology vendors could adversely affect the Global Knowledge business.

Global Knowledge derives a large portion of its consolidated revenue in any financial reporting period from delivering corporate training as an authorized training provider for certain technology companies and has a concentrated portfolio of relationships with these technology companies. Global Knowledge’s status as an authorized training partner for certain key technology companies provides certain benefits, including, among others, the ability to use official curricula created

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by key technology vendors, subsidies and other financial incentives provided by these technology vendors to support training on their products, representation on official training websites operated by the technology vendors, and the ability to issue certified training certificates from the technology vendors. Global Knowledge’s operating results depend to a significant degree on its ability to maintain its status as an authorized training partner with such key technology vendors, and an inability to retain such status, or a significant change in Global Knowledge’s relationship with one or more of its technology vendors, could significantly reduce Global Knowledge’s revenue.

We may be unable to protect our proprietary rights. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property may result in development of products or services that compete with ours. Claims that we infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others could result in costly litigation or royalty payments to third parties, or require us to reengineer or cease sales of our products or services.

Our success depends to a degree upon the protection of our rights in intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws to protect our proprietary rights. We have also entered into, and will continue to enter into, confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties to seek to limit and protect the distribution of confidential information. However, we may not have signed protective agreements in every case.

Although we have taken steps to protect our proprietary rights, these steps may be inadequate. Existing patent, trade secret, copyright, and trademark laws offer only limited protection. Moreover, the laws of other countries in which we market our products may afford little or no effective protection of our intellectual property. Additionally, unauthorized parties may copy aspects of our products, services, or technology or obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Other parties may also breach protective contracts we have executed or will in the future execute. We may not become aware of, or have adequate remedies in the event of, a breach related to such agreements. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce or to determine the validity and scope of our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Even if we were to prevail, such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management and technical resources.

Additionally, third parties have in the past and could in the future claim that our current or future products infringe their intellectual property rights. Any claim, with or without merit, could result in costly litigation or require us to reengineer or cease sales of our products or services, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Infringement claims could also result in an injunction barring the sale of our products or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. Licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to the combined company or at all. From time to time we learn of parties that claim broad intellectual property rights in the learning and talent development area that might implicate our offerings. These parties or others could initiate actions against us in the future.

Our worldwide operations are subject to risks that could negatively impact our future operating results.

We expect that international operations will continue to account for a large portion of our revenue and are subject to inherent risks, including:

difficulties or delays in developing and supporting non-English language versions of our products and services;
political and economic conditions in various jurisdictions;
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign subsidiary operations;
multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including different data privacy and protection laws;
the influence of works councils or similar employee representative bodies on the procurement process and customer investment decisions;
protectionist laws and business practices that may favor local competitors;
difficulties in finding and managing local resellers;
foreign currency fluctuations, including the Euro, pound sterling, Canadian dollar, Australian dollar, Indian rupee, Singapore dollar and related currencies;
potential adverse tax consequences; and
the absence or significant lack of legal protection for intellectual property rights.

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Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our future operations outside of the United States, which could negatively impact our future operating results.

We intend to expand our international operations and continue to establish a worldwide partner and learner base. Our expansion efforts into international markets may not be successful.

We might require additional capital to support our growth, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We intend to continue to make investments to support our growth and may require additional funds to respond to business challenges, including the need to develop new features or enhance our existing platform or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, and content. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to support our growth and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired.

Increasing scrutiny and evolving expectations from customers, partners, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders with respect to our environmental, social and governance practices may impose additional costs on us, expose us to new or additional risks, or harm our reputation.

Companies are facing increasing scrutiny from customers, partners, regulators and investors related to their environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices and disclosure. Additionally, public interest and legislative pressure related to public companies’ ESG practices continues to grow. If our ESG practices fail to meet regulatory requirements or investor or other industry stakeholders’ evolving expectations as they relate to the environment, health and safety, diversity, labor conditions and human rights, product quality, supply chain management, corporate governance and transparency and employing ESG strategies in our operations, our reputation and employee retention may be negatively impacted, and customers may be unwilling to do business with us. Additionally, any disclosure we make may include our policies and practices on a variety of ESG matters, including corporate governance, environmental compliance, employee health and safety practices, human capital management, and workforce inclusion and diversity. It is possible that stakeholders may not be satisfied with our ESG reporting, our ESG practices or our speed of adoption. We could also incur additional costs and devote additional resources to monitor, report and implement various ESG practices. If we fail, or are perceived to be failing, to meet the standards included in any sustainability disclosure or the expectations of our various stakeholders, it could negatively impact our reputation, customer and learner acquisition and retention, access to capital, and employee retention.

Climate change may have an adverse impact on our business.

Risks related to rapid climate change may have an increasingly adverse impact on our business and those of our customers, partners and learners in the longer term. Any of our primary locations and the locations of our customers, partners, vendors, and learners may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Furthermore, it is more difficult to mitigate the impact of these events on our employees while they work from home as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments, and the increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on critical infrastructure in the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business and the business of our customers, partners and learners, and may cause us to experience higher attrition, losses and additional costs to maintain our operations. Further, the effects of climate change may negatively impact regional and local economic activity, which could lead to an adverse effect on our customers, partners, and learners and impact the communities in which we operate. Overall, climate change, its effects and the resulting, unknown impact could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Legal, Regulatory and Related Risks

Our business could be affected by new governmental regulations regarding the Internet as well as by changes impacting the speed and reliability of the Internet.

Various laws and regulations could impede the growth of the Internet or other online services, and new laws and regulations may be adopted in the future. These laws and regulations could limit internet neutrality, involve taxation, tariffs, privacy, data protection, information security, content, copyrights, distribution, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, and the characteristics and quality of services, any of which could decrease the demand for, or the usage of, our platform. To date, government regulations have not materially restricted use of the Internet in most parts of the world. However, the legal and regulatory environment pertaining to the internet is uncertain and governments may impose regulation in the future. New laws may be passed, courts may issue decisions affecting the Internet, existing but previously inapplicable or unenforced laws may be deemed to apply to the Internet, regulatory agencies may begin to more rigorously enforce such formerly unenforced laws, or existing legal safe harbors may be narrowed, both by U.S. federal or state governments or by governments of foreign jurisdictions.

Any factors that adversely affect Internet usage could disrupt the ability of those users to access our learning and talent development solutions, which would adversely affect customer satisfaction and therefore our business. In addition, such changes in laws could increase our costs of doing business or prevent us from delivering our services over the internet or in specific jurisdictions, which could harm our business and our results of operations.

Our ability to increase the effectiveness and scope of our services to customers is ultimately limited by the speed and reliability of both the Internet and our customers’ internal networks. Consequently, the emergence and growth of the market for our products and services depends upon the improvements being made to the entire Internet as well as to our individual customers’ networking infrastructures to alleviate overloading and congestion. If these improvements are not made, and the quality of networks degrades, the ability of our customers to use our products and services will be hindered and our revenue may suffer.

Failure or perceived failure to comply with regulations relating to some career training services could result in the imposition of penalties or the interruption of our ability to provide services in certain jurisdictions.

In many jurisdictions in which we operate, some career training services are subject to licensing requirements. We do not believe that the services we provide are subject to such licensing requirements. Regulators could disagree with our assessment regarding the applicability of licensure requirements and take enforcement action against us, including by imposing penalties or prohibiting us from offering career- related training services in a relevant jurisdiction until we are able to obtain the requisite license. For example, regulatory action has in the past been taken against Global Knowledge in respect of licensing requirements applicable to providers of career training services in certain jurisdictions and regulatory inquiries have occasionally been made about Global Knowledge’s licensure.

Existing or future laws and regulations relating to privacy or data security could increase the cost of our products, limit their use and adoption, and subject us or our customers to litigation, regulatory investigations and penalties, and other potential liabilities.

The U.S. and various state governments have adopted or proposed laws governing the collection, use, storage, sharing and processing of personal data. Several foreign jurisdictions, including but not limited to the EU and its member states, the UK, Korea, Japan, Singapore, Australia, and India, have adopted legislation (including directives or regulations) that increase or change the requirements governing the personal data of individuals in these jurisdictions. In some cases, these laws impose obligations not only on many of our customers, but also directly on us. These laws and regulations are complex and change frequently, at times due to differing economic conditions and changes in political climate, with new laws and regulations proposed frequently and existing laws and regulations subject to different and conflicting interpretations. These laws have the potential to increase costs of compliance, risks of noncompliance and penalties for noncompliance, and the cost and complexity of selling and delivering our solutions.

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For example, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR) imposes obligations on our customers and directly on us. Among other obligations under the GDPR, we are required to give more detailed disclosure about how we collect, use, and share personal data; contractually commit to data protection measures in our contracts with customers; maintain adequate data security measures; notify regulators and affected individuals of certain personal data breaches; meet extensive privacy governance and documentation requirements; and honor individuals’ expanded data protection rights, including their rights to access, correct and delete their personal data. Companies that violate the GDPR can face fines of up to the greater of 20 million euros or 4% of their worldwide annual revenue, and restrictions on data processing. Our customers’ or our vendors’ failure to comply with the GDPR could lead to significant fines imposed by regulators or restrictions on our ability to process personal information as needed to provide our services. We may also be obligated to assist our customers with their own compliance obligations under the GDPR.

In addition, the mechanisms allowing companies to transfer personal data outside of the European Economic Area (“EEA”) face ongoing legal challenges in the EU and threaten our ability to lawfully process personal data where we operate outside of the EEA. These challenges have been brought against the European Commission’s Standard Contractual Clauses for transfers of personal data, on which we rely to transfer personal data from the EEA. Loss of our ability to lawfully transfer personal data out of the EEA to any other jurisdictions may cause reluctance or refusal by current or prospective European customers to use our products. Additionally, other countries outside of the EEA have passed or are considering passing laws requiring local data residency, which could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services.

In addition, the California legislature passed the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”). The CCPA gives California residents certain rights similar to the individual rights given under the GDPR, including the right to access and delete their personal information, opt-out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA prohibits discrimination against individuals who exercise their privacy rights, provides for civil penalties for violations, and creates a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Additionally, a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), was approved by California voters in the November 2020 election. The CPRA will significantly modify the CCPA, and goes into effect and fully supersedes CCPA on January 1, 2023. The CPRA will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights and establishing a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CPRA. Since the enactment of the CCPA, new privacy and data security laws have been proposed in more than half of the U.S. states (and were enacted in Virginia and Colorado) and in the U.S. Congress, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States. The CPRA may lead other states to pass comparable legislation, with potentially greater penalties, and more rigorous compliance requirements relevant to our business,

The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, privacy and data security laws and regulations may limit the use and adoption of our services, lead to negative publicity, reduce overall demand for our services, make it more difficult to meet expectations of or commitments to customers, require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts with customers, lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities for noncompliance, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business. These laws could also impact our ability to offer, or our customers’ ability to deploy, our services in certain locations. The costs, burdens, and potential liabilities imposed by existing privacy laws could be compounded if other jurisdictions in the United States or abroad begin to adopt similar or more stringent laws.

Furthermore, concerns regarding data privacy and security may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing data that allows our customers to use our services more effectively. Even the perception that the privacy of personal information is not satisfactorily protected or does not meet regulatory requirements could inhibit sales of our products or services and could limit adoption of our cloud-based solutions.

Any of these matters could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or operational results.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws and regulations relating to our international operations could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the UK Bribery Act, and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery, and anti-money laundering laws in various jurisdictions both domestic and abroad. We leverage third parties,

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including channel partners, to sell subscriptions to our solution and conduct our business abroad. We and our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities and may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party business partners and intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, channel partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. While we have policies and procedures to address compliance with such laws, we cannot guarantee that all of our employees and agents will not take actions in violation of our policies and applicable law, for which we may be ultimately held responsible. Any violation of the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act, or other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions, or suspension or debarment from U.S. or other government contracts, all of which may have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results, and prospects.

We could also be affected by nationalization of our international operations, unstable governments, unfamiliar or biased legal systems, intergovernmental disputes or animus against the United States. Any determination that our operations or activities did not comply with applicable U.S. or foreign laws or regulations could result in the imposition of fines and penalties, interruptions of business, terminations of necessary licenses and permits, and other legal and equitable sanctions.

Changes in tax laws, unfavorable resolution of tax examinations, or exposure to additional tax liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

We operate in a number of tax jurisdictions globally, including in the U.S., Ireland and Luxembourg. Governments in the jurisdictions in which we operate implement changes to tax laws and regulations periodically. Any implementation of tax laws that fundamentally change the taxation of corporations in the U.S., Ireland, or Luxembourg and other applicable jurisdictions could materially impact our effective tax rate and could have a significant adverse impact on our financial results. In addition, our effective tax rate could fluctuate due to changes in the mix of earnings and losses in countries with differing statutory tax rates. Our tax expense could also be impacted by changes in non-deductible expenses, changes in the tax treatment of equity-based compensation, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities and our ability to utilize them, the applicability of withholding taxes, effects from acquisitions, and the evaluation of new information that results in a change to a tax position taken in a prior period.

We are also subject to examinations of our tax returns by tax authorities in various jurisdictions around the world. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from ongoing tax examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. These assessments can require a high degree of judgment and estimation. Intercompany transactions associated with the sale of services and intellectual property and cost share arrangements are complex and affect our tax liabilities. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax laws and regulations in multiple jurisdictions. Successful unilateral or multi-jurisdictional actions by various tax authorities, including in the context of our current or future corporate operating structure and third-party and intercompany arrangements (including transfer pricing and the manner in which we develop, value and use our intellectual property), may increase our worldwide effective tax rate, result in additional taxes or other costs or have other material consequences, which could harm our operations, financial results and condition. A difference in the ultimate resolution of tax uncertainties from what is currently estimated could have an adverse effect on our financial results and condition.

We could be subjected to legal actions based upon the content we include in our courseware or learning assets.

It is possible that we could become subject to legal actions based upon claims that our course content or other learning assets infringe the rights of others or is erroneous. Any such claims, with or without merit, could subject us to costly litigation and the diversion of our financial resources and management personnel. The risk of such claims is exacerbated by the fact that certain learning content is provided by third parties over whom we exert limited control. Further, if such claims are successful, we may be required to alter the content, pay financial damages, or obtain content from others.

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Risks Related to our Indebtedness and Certain Other Obligations

Our degree of leverage could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry, expose us to interest rate risk, and prevent us from meeting obligations on our indebtedness.

Our degree of leverage could have potentially adverse consequences, including: making it more difficult for us to make payments on our indebtedness; increasing our vulnerability to general economic and industry conditions; requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures, research and development and future business opportunities; exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates under our credit facilities to the extent such facilities have variable rates of interest; limiting our ability to make strategic acquisitions and investments; limiting our ability to refinance our indebtedness as it becomes due; and limiting our ability to adjust quickly or at all to changing market conditions and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who are less highly leveraged.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

Our financing agreements contain various covenants that limit our ability to engage in specific types of transactions. These covenants limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to incur or guarantee additional debt and issue or sell certain preferred stock; pay dividends on, redeem or repurchase our capital stock; make certain acquisitions or investments; incur or assume certain liens; enter into transactions with affiliates; and sell assets to, or merge or consolidate with, another company. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under our debt instruments.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and we may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.

Additionally, our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions or debt repayments to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each such subsidiary is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from them. While our existing credit agreements limit the ability of our guarantor subsidiaries to incur consensual encumbrances and include restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us, these limitations are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we do not receive cash from our subsidiaries, we will be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.

If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations and operating lease obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. Our existing credit agreements restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from the disposition. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could otherwise realize from such dispositions and any such proceeds that are realized may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.

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Risks Related to our Previous Capital Structure and Resulting Chapter 11 Cases

The ongoing effects of our prior capital structure, including our emergence from the Chapter 11 Cases, could adversely affect our business and relationships.

The level of prior indebtedness impacted us in several ways, including our ability to invest in the business. This indebtedness led to filing the Chapter 11 Cases. Our ability to change the public perception relating to our prior capital structure and Chapter 11 Cases may have an impact on our ability to continue to attract our customers, which is critical to our ability to achieve long-term profitability, and a negative public perception of our business due to our recently consummated bankruptcy proceedings may have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

Due principally to our prior capital structure, we incurred operating losses in each of our last five fiscal years. As noted in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  —  Non-GAAP Financial Measures,” our Adjusted EBITDA has also declined over this period. While we believe we are taking the right steps to improve profitability over the long-term, we may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability on a consistent quarterly or annual basis. Failure to maintain profitability in future periods may materially and adversely affect our ability to make payments on our outstanding debt obligations.

Information contained in our historical financial statements will not be comparable to the information contained in our financial statements after the application of fresh-start accounting.

Following our emergence from Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code, our financial condition and results of operations from and after August 27, 2020 will not be comparable to the financial condition or results of operations in our historical financial statements. This will make it difficult for our stockholders and others to assess our performance in relation to prior periods. As a result of our restructuring, our financial statements are subject to the fresh-start accounting provisions of GAAP. In the application of fresh-start accounting, an allocation of the reorganization value is made to the fair value of assets and liabilities in conformity with the guidance for the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. Adjustments to the carrying amounts could be material and could affect prospective results of operations as balance sheet items are settled, depreciated, amortized or impaired. We test goodwill and indefinite lived intangible assets for impairment annually or whenever events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. We evaluate other long-lived assets for impairments whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Impairments could occur in the future if our expected future cash flows decline, market or interest rate environments deteriorate, or if carrying values change materially compared with changes in their respective fair values.

Risks Related to our Critical Accounting Policies

If our judgments or estimates relating to our critical accounting policies are based on assumptions that change or prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could fall below expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in our stock price.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make judgments, estimates, and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities, and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the trading price of our ordinary shares. Significant judgments, estimates, and assumptions used in preparing our consolidated financial statements include, or may in the future include, those related to revenue

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recognition, fresh-start accounting, sales commissions costs, long-lived assets and accounting for income taxes including deferred tax assets and liabilities.

Risks Related to the Codecademy Merger

The market price for shares of Class A common stock following the Codecademy Merger may be affected by factors different from, or in addition to, those that historically have affected or currently affect the market prices of shares of Class A common stock.

Skillsoft’s businesses differ in some regards from those of Codecademy and, accordingly, the results of operations of Skillsoft following completion of the Codecademy Merger will be affected by some factors that are different from those currently or historically affecting the results of operations of Skillsoft. The results of operations of Skillsoft following the Codecademy Merger may also be affected by factors different from those that have historically affected Skillsoft. In addition, following the Codecademy Merger, Skillsoft may seek to raise additional equity financing through one or more underwritten offerings, private placements and/or rights offerings, or issue stock in connection with acquisitions, which may result in downward pressure on the share price of the Class A common stock.

Skillsoft has incurred significant transaction costs in connection with the Codecademy Merger.

Skillsoft has incurred and is expected to continue to incur a number of non-recurring costs associated with the Codecademy Merger, combining the operations of Codecademy with Skillsoft’s and achieving desired synergies. These costs have been, and will continue to be, substantial. A substantial portion of non-recurring expenses incurred consist of transaction costs and include, among others, fees paid to financial, legal, accounting and other advisors and employee retention, severance, and benefit costs. Skillsoft will also incur costs related to formulating and implementing integration plans. Although Skillsoft expects that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of synergies and efficiencies related to the integration of the assets and operations of Codecademy, should allow Skillsoft to offset these transaction costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term or at all.

Securities class action lawsuits and a derivative lawsuit have been brought against Skillsoft in connection with the Codecademy Merger, which could result in substantial costs.

Securities class action lawsuits and derivative lawsuits are often brought against public companies that have entered into acquisition, merger or other business combination agreements that could result in significant costs to Skillsoft, including any costs associated with the indemnification of directors and officers. Even if such a lawsuit is without merit, defending against these claims can result in substantial costs and divert management time and resources. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on Skillsoft’s liquidity and financial condition.

Skillsoft will record goodwill and other intangible assets that could become impaired and result in material non-cash charges to the results of operations of Skillsoft in the future.

Skillsoft will account for the Codecademy Merger as an acquisition of a business in accordance with GAAP. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the assets and liabilities of Codecademy will be recorded, as of completion, at their respective fair values (except for deferred revenue which, pursuant to Skillsoft’s adoption of ASU 2021-08 — Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers effective June 11, 2021, will be recognized using the revenue recognition guidance in Accounting Standards Codification Topic 606 rather than fair value) and added to Skillsoft’s. Skillsoft’s reported financial condition and results of operations for periods after completion of the Codecademy Merger will reflect Codecademy’s balances and results after completion of the Codecademy Merger but will not be restated retroactively to reflect the historical financial position or results of operations of Codecademy for periods prior to the Codecademy Merger.

Under the acquisition method of accounting, the total purchase price will be allocated to Codecademy’s tangible assets and liabilities and identifiable intangible assets based on their fair values as of the date of completion of the Codecademy Merger. The excess of the purchase price over those fair values, if any, will be recorded as goodwill. To the extent the value of goodwill or intangibles, if any, becomes impaired in the future, Skillsoft may be required to incur material non-

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cash charges relating to such impairment. Skillsoft’s operating results may be significantly impacted from both the impairment and the underlying trends in the business that triggered the impairment.

Skillsoft may be unable to successfully integrate Codecademy’s business into its business or achieve the anticipated benefits of the Codecademy Merger.

The success of the Codecademy Merger will depend, in part, Skillsoft’s ability to realize the anticipated benefits and cost savings from combining Skillsoft’s and Codecademy’s businesses, and there can be no assurance that Skillsoft will be able to successfully integrate or otherwise realize the anticipated benefits of the Codecademy Merger. Difficulties in integrating Codecademy into Skillsoft may result in Skillsoft performing differently than expected, in operational challenges, or in the failure to realize anticipated expense-related efficiencies.

Potential difficulties that may be encountered in the integration process include, among others:

the inability to successfully integrate Codecademy in a manner that permits the achievement of full revenue, expected cash flows, and cost savings anticipated from the Codecademy Merger;
not realizing anticipated operating synergies;
integrating personnel from Codecademy and the loss of key leadership and employees;
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen expenses or delays associated with and following the completion of the Codecademy Merger;
integrating relationships with customers, vendors, and business partners;
performance shortfalls as a result of the diversion of management’s attention caused by completing the Codecademy Merger and integrating Codecademy’s operations;
the impact of Skillsoft’s recent acquisition of Global Knowledge and Pluma, Inc.; and
the disruption of, or the loss of momentum in, Skillsoft’s ongoing business or inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures, and policies.

Skillsoft’s results may suffer if it does not effectively manage its expanded operations following the Codecademy Merger.

Following completion of the Codecademy Merger, the size of Skillsoft’s business increased significantly. Skillsoft’s future success will depend, in part, on Skillsoft’s ability to manage this expanded business, which poses numerous risks and uncertainties, including the need to integrate the operations and business of Codecademy into Skillsoft’s existing business in an efficient and timely manner, to combine systems and management controls, and to integrate relationships with customers, vendors, and business partners.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A common stock

If the benefits of the recent transactions completed by Skillsoft do not meet the expectations of financial analysts, the market price of the Class A common stock of the Skillsoft may decline.

The market price of  our Class A common stock of the Skillsoft may decline as a result of the Codecademy Merger if Skillsoft does not achieve the perceived benefits of the Codecademy Merger as rapidly, or to the extent anticipated by, financial analysts or the effect of the Codecademy Merger on the financial results of Skillsoft is not consistent with the expectations of financial analysts. Accordingly, holders of our Class A common stock of Skillsoft may experience a loss as a result of a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock. In addition, a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock of Skillsoft could adversely affect the ability of Skillsoft to issue additional securities and to obtain additional financing in the future.

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Our Derivative Instruments are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of our Derivative Instruments could have a material effect on our financial results.

On April 12, 2021, the Staff at the SEC issued a statement (the “SEC Statement”) discussing the accounting implications of certain terms that are common in warrants issued by special purpose acquisition companies. In light of the SEC Statement and guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 815-40, “Derivatives and Hedging  —  Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity,” Churchill Capital Corp. management evaluated the terms of the warrant agreement entered into in connection with Skillsoft’s initial public offering and concluded that the warrant agreement governing public warrants and the private placement warrants (together, the “warrants”) include provisions that, based on the SEC Statement, preclude the warrants from being classified as components of equity. As a result, Churchill Capital Corp. classified the warrants, the 2020 note, and that certain Subscription Agreement, dated as of October 12, 2020, by and among Skillsoft, Churchill Sponsor II, LLC, and Prosus (the “Prosus Subscription Agreement”) (together, the “Derivative Instruments”) as liabilities. Under this accounting treatment, Churchill Capital Corp. was required to measure the fair value of the Derivative Instruments at the end of each reporting period and recognize changes in the fair value from the prior period in their operating results for the current period. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly based on factors which are outside our control. We expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses due to the quarterly fair valuation of the Derivative Instruments and that such gains or losses could be material.

The price of our Class A common stock may change significantly and you could lose all or part of your investment as a result.

The trading price of shares of our Class A common stock is likely to continue to be volatile. The stock market, including our industry, recently has experienced extreme volatility. This volatility often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of particular companies. You may not be able to resell your shares at an attractive price due to a number of factors such as those listed in the risk factors above and below and the following:

results of operations that vary from the expectations of securities analysts and investors;
results of operations that vary from those of Skillsoft’s competitors;
changes in expectations as to Skillsoft’s future financial performance, including financial estimates and investment recommendations by securities analysts and investors;
declines in the market prices of stocks generally;
strategic actions by Skillsoft or its competitors;
announcements by Skillsoft or its competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint ventures, other strategic relationships or capital commitments;
any significant change in Skillsoft’s management;
changes in general economic or market conditions or trends in Skillsoft’s industry or markets;
changes in business or regulatory conditions, including new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws or regulations applicable to Skillsoft’s business;
future sales of our Class A common stock or other securities of Skillsoft;
investor perceptions or the investment opportunity associated with our Class A common stock relative to other investment alternatives;
the public’s response to press releases or other public announcements by Skillsoft or third parties, including the filings of Skillsoft with the SEC;
litigation involving Skillsoft, Skillsoft’s industry, or investigations by regulators into Skillsoft’s operations or those of their competitors;
guidance, if any, that Skillsoft provides to the public, any changes in this guidance or Skillsoft’s failure to meet this guidance;
the development and sustainability of an active trading market for our Class A common stock;
actions by institutional or activist stockholders;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations or principles; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from natural disasters, pandemics, war, acts of terrorism or responses to these events.

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These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock, regardless of Skillsoft’s actual operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our Class A common stock is low.

In the past, following periods of market volatility, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation. If Skillsoft was involved in securities litigation, it could have a substantial cost and divert resources and the attention of executive management from Skillsoft’s business regardless of the outcome of such litigation.

Because there are no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

Skillsoft intends to retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and there are no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of Skillsoft’s Board. Skillsoft’s Board may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and results of operations, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us and such other factors as our Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is limited by covenants of Skillsoft’s existing and outstanding indebtedness and may be limited by covenants of any future indebtedness Skillsoft incurs. As a result, stockholders must rely on their sales of Class A common stock after appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about Skillsoft’s business or if they downgrade the Class A common stock or Skillsoft’s sector, the price of the Class A common stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our Class A common stock is influenced in part by the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about Skillsoft or its business. Skillsoft does not control these analysts. In addition, some financial analysts may have limited expertise with Skillsoft’s model and operations. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover Skillsoft downgrade the Class A common stock or industry, or the stock of any of its competitors, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about its business, the price of the Class A common stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of Skillsoft or fails to publish reports on it regularly, Skillsoft could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause the price of the Class A common stock or trading volume to decline.

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by Skillsoft or its stockholders in the public market could cause the market price for our Class A common stock to decline.

The sale of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of Class A common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for Skillsoft to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that it deems appropriate.

As of April 11, 2022, Skillsoft had a total of 162,911,755 shares of Class A common stock outstanding and warrants to purchase an aggregate of 61,966,667 shares of Class A common stock outstanding.

In addition, pursuant to the that certain amended and restated registration rights agreement, which became effective upon the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Skillsoft Merger Agreement (the “Existing Registration Rights Agreement”), as well as the Registration Rights Agreement entered into at the closing of the Codecademy Merger (together with the Existing Registration Rights Agreement, the “Registration Rights Agreements”), certain stockholders have the right, subject to certain conditions, to require us to register the sale of their shares of our Class A common stock under the Securities Act. By exercising their registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreements and selling a large number of shares, these stockholders could cause the prevailing market price of our Class A common stock to decline.

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As restrictions on resale end or if these stockholders exercise their registration rights under the Registration Rights Agreements, the market price of shares of Class A common stock could drop significantly if the holders of these shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for Skillsoft to raise additional funds through future offerings of shares of Class A common stock or other securities.

In addition, the shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under Skillsoft’s equity incentive plans will become eligible for sale in the public market once those shares are issued, subject to provisions relating to various vesting agreements, lock-up agreements and, in some cases, limitations on volume and manner of sale applicable to affiliates under Rule 144, as applicable. The compensation committee of our Board may determine the exact number of shares to be reserved for future issuance under its equity incentive plans at its discretion. On August 17, 2021, Skillsoft filed a registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to register shares of Class A common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Class A common stock issued pursuant to Skillsoft’s equity incentive plans. Skillsoft will file an additional registration statement on Form S-8 under the Securities Act to (i) register shares of Class A common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Class A common stock issued pursuant to Skillsoft’s equity incentive plans in connection with the issuance of Skillsoft RSUs upon closing of the Codecademy Merger and (ii) to register shares of the Company’s Class A common stock issuable under the Company’s 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan (“2020 Plan”) pursuant to Section 6(a) of the 2020 Plan, which provides for an automatic annual increase of the number of shares issuable under the 2020 Plan. Form S-8 registration statements automatically become effective upon filing.

The Codecademy equity holders may wish to dispose of some or all of their interests in Skillsoft, and as a result may seek to sell their shares of Class A common stock. These sales (or the perception that these sales may occur), coupled with the increase in the outstanding number of shares of Class A common stock, may affect the market for, and the market price of, the Class A common stock in an adverse manner.

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Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the open market by the Codecademy equity holders following the closing of the Codecasdemy Merger could depress the price of the Class A common stock.

If Skillsoft’s stockholders, including former Codecademy equity holders, sell substantial amounts of Class A common stock in the public market following the closing of the Codecademy Merger, the market price of the Class A common stock may decrease. These sales might also make it more difficult for Skillsoft to raise capital by selling equity or equity-related securities at a time and price that it otherwise would deem appropriate.

Future issuances of debt securities and equity securities, including in connection with the completion of the Codecademy transaction, may adversely affect us, including the market price of shares of Class A common stock, and may be dilutive to existing stockholders.

In the future, we may incur debt or issue equity that could rank senior to the shares of Class A common stock. Those securities will generally have priority upon liquidation. Such securities also may be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting its operating flexibility. Additionally, any convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of the shares of Class A common stock. Because our decision to issue debt or equity in the future will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing, nature or success of our future capital raising efforts. As a result, future capital raising efforts may reduce the market price of the shares of Class A common stock and be dilutive to existing stockholders.

We may also issue securities in connection with investments or acquisitions, as we did in the Codecademy transaction. The amount of shares of Class A common stock issued in connection with an investment or acquisition could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of Class A common stock. Any issuance of additional securities in connection with investments or acquisitions may result in additional dilution to our stockholders.

Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents could delay or prevent a change of control.

Certain provisions of our Charter and bylaws may have an anti-takeover effect and may delay, defer or prevent a merger, acquisition, tender offer, takeover attempt or other change of control transaction that a stockholder might consider in its best interest, including those attempts that might result in a premium over the market price for the shares held by our stockholders.

These provisions provide for, among other things:

a staggered board, which means that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause;
the ability of our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock;
advance notice for nominations of directors by stockholders and for stockholders to include matters to be considered at our annual meetings;
certain limitations on convening special stockholder meetings;
limiting the ability of stockholders to act by written consent; and
providing that our board of directors is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws.

These anti-takeover provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire Skillsoft, even if the third-party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many of our stockholders. As a result, our stockholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause Skillsoft to take other corporate actions you desire.

The Charter designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers, employees or stockholders.

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The Charter provides that, subject to limited exceptions, any (1) derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Skillsoft, (2) action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer, stockholder or employee to Skillsoft or its stockholders, (3) action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the Charter or our bylaws or (4) action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be exclusively brought in the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or, if such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction thereof, another state or federal court located within the State of Delaware. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of Skillsoft’s capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the provisions of the Charter described above. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against Skillsoft and its directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find these provisions of the Charter inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, the Skillsoft may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect Skillsoft’s business and financial condition. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Charter will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum. While Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, Section 27 of the Exchange Act creates exclusive federal jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder.

Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to the forum provisions in the Charter. If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of the forum provisions is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “foreign action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to: (x) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the forum provisions (an “enforcement action”); and (y) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such enforcement action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the foreign action as agent for such stockholder.

This choice-of-forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with Skillsoft or its directors, officers, stockholders, agents or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits. We note that there is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this provision, and the enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ charter documents has been challenged in legal proceedings. Further, investors cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. It is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable, and if a court were to find this provision of the Charter inapplicable or unenforceable with respect to one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations and result in a diversion of the time and resources of our management and board of directors.

The NYSE may not continue to list our securities, which could limit investors’ ability to make transactions in our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.

Our Class A common stock and Public Warrants are currently listed on the NYSE. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of NYSE. If the NYSE delists our Class A common stock from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, our stockholders could face significant material adverse consequences including:

a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
a determination that the Class A common stock is a “penny stock” which will require brokers trading in such securities to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;

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a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.

A market for our securities may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities may fluctuate significantly due to the market’s reaction to the Codecademy Merger and general market and economic conditions. An active trading market for our securities may not be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can vary due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports. Additionally, if our securities become delisted from the NYSE for any reason, and are quoted on the OTC Bulletin Board, an inter-dealer automated quotation system for equity securities that is not a national securities exchange, the liquidity and price of our securities may be more limited than if we were quoted or listed on the NYSE or another national securities exchange. You may be unable to sell your securities unless a market can be established or sustained.

Prosus and its affiliates may have interests that differ from those of other stockholders.

As of April 11, 2022, following the completion of the Codecademy Merger, Prosus holds approximately 37.5% of the number of shares and voting power of Skillsoft’s outstanding Class A common stock.

Pursuant to the terms of the Prosus Subscription Agreement, and subject to any required approval of Skillsoft’s stockholders pursuant to the applicable rules and listing standards of the NYSE (which Skillsoft will use reasonable best efforts to obtain), if Skillsoft intends to issue New Securities (as defined in the Prosus Subscription Agreement) to any person, then, at least fifteen (15) business days prior to the issuance of the New Securities, Skillsoft shall deliver Prosus an offer (the “Offer”) to issue New Securities to Prosus for cash in an aggregate amount, on a pro forma basis after giving effect to the issuance of the New Securities, that would result in Subscriber maintaining beneficial ownership (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) of at least the percentage of the issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock that it beneficially owns immediately prior to the issuance of such New Securities on a fully-diluted and as- converted basis but, solely prior to the expiration of the earlier of (i) June 11, 2024 and (ii) the occurrence of a Significant Event (as defined in the Prosus Subscription Agreement), not to the extent such issuance would result in Prosus having beneficial ownership of more than thirty-five percent (35%) of the issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock on a fully-diluted and as converted basis (excluding any warrants issued to Prosus pursuant to the Prosus Subscription Agreement). The Offer shall state that Skillsoft proposes to issue the New Securities and shall specify their number and terms (including the cash purchase price or the fair market value of any non-cash consideration as reasonably determined by the Board). The Offer shall remain open and irrevocable for a period of 15 business days from the date of its delivery.

Following the Codecademy Merger, so long as Prosus and its affiliates continue to directly or indirectly own a significant amount of Skillsoft’s outstanding Class A common stock, Prosus may be able to exert substantial influence on Skillsoft and may be able to exercise its influence in a manner that is not in the interests of Skillsoft’s other stakeholders. Additionally, Prosus and its affiliates are in the business of making investments in companies and owning real estate, and may from time to time acquire and hold interests in businesses  that compete directly or indirectly with Skillsoft or that supply Skillsoft with goods and services. Prosus or its affiliates may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to (or competitive with) Skillsoft’s business, and as a result those acquisition opportunities may not be available to Skillsoft.

Stockholders should consider that the interests of Prosus may differ from their interests in material respects.

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Skillsoft’s consultant, the Klein Group, has an interest in the Codecademy Merger.

Michael Klein, a member of our Board, is the Chief Executive Officer of The Klein Group, LLC (the “Klein Group”). Skillsoft engaged the Klein Group to act as a consultant in respect of a potential transaction with Codecademy, particularly to assist management in its evaluation of the business opportunity and structuring and negotiation of a potential transaction. Pursuant to this engagement, Skillsoft paid the Klein Group a transaction fee equal to $2.0 million in connection with the Codecademy Merger.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Our United States headquarters are located in Nashua, New Hampshire where we lease an aggregate of 43,982 square feet. The lease for this location currently runs through June 2024. In addition to our United States headquarters, our other primary facilities are located in Dublin, Ireland; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Cary, North Carolina; Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada; and Hyderabad, India.

Our worldwide headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland, where we currently lease and occupy a 16,249 square foot facility, which primarily houses our main content development center.

We also lease small sales offices in a number of other countries throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia-Pacfiic regions.

We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs and that suitable additional or substitute space will be available on commercially reasonable terms when needed, including with respect to our Nashua locations.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

Incorporated by reference herein is information regarding legal proceedings as set forth under “Litigation” contained in Note 14 – “Leases, Commitments and Contingencies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of Part II of this Form 10-K.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our Class A common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “SKIL.” According to the records of our transfer agent, we had 164 stockholders of record as of April 11, 2022.

For equity compensation plan information, please refer to Item 12 in Part III of this Annual Report.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our Class A common stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain future earnings, if any, to fund the growth of our business, make payments on our outstanding debt obligations and/or repurchase shares.

Item 6.Reserved

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion of the financial condition and results of operations of Skillsoft (as defined below) should be read in conjunction with Skillsoft’s audited consolidated financial statements for the periods preceding and following the businsess combination in the year ended January 31, 2022 and the related notes appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report and the related notes included in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on June 17, 2021. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Skillsoft’s actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this report. Unless otherwise noted, amounts referenced in this discussion, other than in reference to share numbers, are in thousands.

Significant Transactions

Business Combination with Global Knowledge

On June 11, 2021, the Company and Software Luxembourg Holding S.A., a global leader in digital learning and talent management solutions, completed a business combination and subsequent acquisition of Albert DE Holdings Inc. (“Global Knowledge” and such acquisition, the “Global Knowledge Merger”), a worldwide leader in IT and professional skills development. The combined company operates as Skillsoft Corp. (“Skillsoft”, “we”, “us”, “our”, and the “Company”) and is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the new ticker symbol “SKIL” beginning on June 14, 2021.

Codecademy Merger

On December 22, 2021, the Company announced a definitive agreement to acquire Codecademy (the “Codecademy Merger”), a leading online learning platform for technical skills, for approximately $525 million in cash and stock.  Codecademy is an innovative and popular learning platform providing high-demand technical skills to approximately 40 million registered learners in nearly every country worldwide. The platform offers interactive, self-paced courses and hands-on learning in 14 programming languages across multiple domains such as application development, data science, cloud and cybersecurity. We believe the Codecademy acquisition will further enhance our Technology and Developer offerings and differentiate us from our competitors. The Codecademy Merger closed on April 4, 2022 for total consideration of approximately $390.3 million, consisting of the issuance of 30,374,427 common shares and a cash payment of $207.6 million.

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Change in Fiscal Year

On June 21, 2021, our board of directors approved the adoption of a January 31 year-end for the Company’s financial reporting, effective immediately, to align Churchill Capital Corp II and Global Knowledge with the pre-business combination Skillsoft’s fiscal year end. As a result, this fiscal year ended on January 31, 2022 (fiscal 2022).

Company’s Business following the Business Combination

Skillsoft is a global leader in corporate digital learning, serving more than 75% of the Fortune 1000, customers in over 160 countries, and a community of learners of more than 90 million globally. Skillsoft’s primary learning solutions include: (i) Percipio, an intelligent and immersive digital learning platform; (ii) Global Knowledge, a global provider of authorized information technology & development training and professional skills; (iii) Codecademy, an online learning platform for technical skills that uses an innovative, scalable approach to online coding education; (iv) Pluma,  which offers individualized coaching through a digital platform that provides executive-quality coaching that is personal yet scalable; and (v) SumTotal, a SaaS-based Human Capital Management (“HCM”) solution with a leading Talent Development platform.

The Company provides enterprise learning solutions designed to prepare organizations for the future of work, enable them to overcome critical skill gaps, drive demonstrable behavior-change, and unlock the potential in one of their most important assets: their people. The Company’s award-winning, AI-driven, immersive learning platform, Percipio, is purpose built to make learning easier, more accessible, and more effective. Percipio is an open, modern and extensible platform designed to meet the needs of the enterprise customer.  Skillsoft offers a comprehensive suite of premium, original, and authorized partner content, including one of the broadest and deepest libraries of leadership & business, technology & developer, and compliance curricula. With access to a broad spectrum of learning options (including video, audio, books, bootcamps, live events, practice labs and individualized coaching), organizations can meaningfully increase learner engagement and retention. In addition, we believe our recent acquisition of Codecademy will further strengthen our content library, enhance the Percipio platform, broaden our customer reach and create significant cross selling opportunities, positioning us for faster growth.

The corporate digital learning industry is rapidly growing, driven by significant tailwinds as organizations focus on upskilling, reskilling, and future-proofing their workforces and the accelerated shift from in-person training to digital training due, in part, to the significant and likely permanent shift to largely remote and distributed workforces triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic and increased emphasis on talent driven by the “great resignation.”  The war for talent, labor shortages, wage inflation, hybrid work, early retirements, and burnout among those who stay behind all contribute to this growing demand.  According to a January 2021 report by McKinsey, 87% of companies worldwide either currently have skills gaps or believe they will within the next few years, and core skills are changing at an unprecedented pace. In a recent survey conducted by Deloitte, the vast majority of CEO’s cited labor and skills shortages as the number one threat to their business in the coming year – ahead of the pandemic, supply chain disruption, inflation and market instability, cybersecurity, and political instability. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, technology will radically transform 1.1 billion jobs by 2030. CEOs, Chief People Officers, and the companies they and their teams lead need to transform their current workforce into one adapted for tomorrow’s demands.  We believe these factors present a significant market opportunity for our solutions.

Results of Operations

Our financial results for the period from June 12, 2021 to January 31, 2022 are referred to as those of the “Successor” periods. Our financial results for the periods of August 28, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1, 2021 to June 11, 2021 are referred to as those of the “Predecessor (SLH)” periods. Our financial results for the period of February 1, 2020 to August 27, 2020 are referred to as those of the “Predecessor (PL)” periods. Our results of operations as reported in our Consolidated Financial Statements for these periods are prepared in accordance with GAAP. Although we are required by GAAP to report on our results for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021 separately, for the periods from June 12, 2021 through January 31, 2022, February 1, 2021 through June 11, 2021, August 28, 2020 through January 31, 2021, and February 1, 2020 through August 27, 2020, management views the Company’s operating results for the fiscal

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years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021 by combining the results of the applicable Predecessor and Successor periods because such presentation provides better comparability of our results to prior periods.

We cannot adequately benchmark the operating results for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 against any of the previous periods reported in our Consolidated Financial Statements without combining the applicable Predecessor and Successor periods and do not believe that reviewing the results of the periods in isolation would be useful in identifying trends in or reaching conclusions regarding our overall operating performance. Management believes that the key performance metrics such as revenue and operating (loss) income for the Successor periods when combined with the Predecessor periods provide more meaningful comparisons to other periods and are useful in identifying current business trends. Accordingly, in addition to presenting our results of operations as reported in our Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with GAAP, the tables and discussion below also present the combined results for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021. For a discussion of the combined results for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended January  31, 2020, please refer to “Skillsoft’s Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” on Form S-4 filed with the SEC on May 27, 2021.

The table below presents the results for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, which are the sum of the reported amounts for the Predecessor (SLH) period from February 1, 2021 through June 11, 2021 and the Successor period from June 12, 2021 through January 31, 2022. These combined results are not considered to be prepared in accordance with GAAP and have not been prepared as pro forma results, per applicable regulations. The combined operating results do not reflect the actual results we would have achieved absent the business combination and may not be indicative of future results.

Predecessor

Non-GAAP

Successor

(SLH)

Combined

From

From June

February 1,

Fiscal Year

12, 2021 to

2021 to June

Ended January

(In thousands)

    

January 31, 2022

11, 2021

    

31, 2022

Revenues:

 

  

  

 

  

Total revenues

$

427,754

$

139,636

$

567,390

Operating expenses:

 

 

  

 

Costs of revenues

 

126,414

 

35,881

 

162,295

Content and software development

 

46,682

 

24,084

 

70,766

Selling and marketing

 

106,110

 

41,940

 

148,050

General and administrative

 

72,004

 

17,217

 

89,221

Amortization of goodwill and intangible assets

 

95,922

 

50,902

 

146,824

Recapitalization and acquisition-related costs

 

20,194

 

6,938

 

27,132

Restructuring

 

3,696

 

(703)

 

2,993

Total operating expenses

 

471,022

 

176,259

 

647,281

Operating loss

 

(43,268)

 

(36,623)

(79,891)

Interest and other expense, net

 

(26,122)

 

(17,249)

 

(43,371)

Fair value adjustment to warrants

 

17,441

 

900

 

18,341

Loss before benefit from income taxes

 

(51,949)

 

(52,972)

 

(104,921)

Benefit from income taxes

 

(5,143)

 

(3,708)

 

(8,851)

Net loss

$

(46,806)

$

(49,264)

$

(96,070)

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The table below presents the results for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, which are the sum of the reported amounts for the Predecessor (SLH) period from August 28, 2020 through January 31, 2021 and the Predecessor (PL) period from February 1, 2020 through August 27, 2020. These combined results are not considered to be prepared in accordance with GAAP and have not been prepared as pro forma results per applicable regulations.

Non-GAAP

Predecessor (SLH)

Predecessor (PL)

Combined

From

From

Fiscal Year

August 28, 2020

February 1, 2020

Ended January

(In thousands)

    

to January 31, 2021

to August 27, 2020

    

31, 2021

Revenues:

 

  

  

 

  

Total revenues

$

108,768

$

273,851

$

382,619

Operating expenses:

 

 

  

 

Costs of revenues

 

40,898

 

52,160

 

93,058

Content and software development

 

30,028

 

38,986

 

69,014

Selling and marketing

 

55,285

 

75,028

 

130,313

General and administrative

 

21,636

 

37,455

 

59,091

Amortization of intangible assets

 

39,824

 

34,378

 

74,202

Impairment of intangible assets

332,376

332,376

Recapitalization and acquisition-related costs

 

15,928

 

32,099

 

48,027

Restructuring

 

4,341

 

1,179

 

5,520

Total operating expenses

 

207,940

 

603,661

 

811,601

Operating (loss) income

 

(99,172)

 

(329,810)

 

(428,982)

Interest and other expense, net

 

(19,384)

 

(166,968)

 

(186,352)

Fair value adjustment to warrants

 

2,900

 

 

2,900

Reorganization items, net

3,329,245

3,329,245

Loss before provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

(115,656)

 

2,832,467

 

2,716,811

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes

 

(21,934)

 

68,455

 

46,521

Net (loss) income

$

(93,722)

$

2,764,012

$

2,670,290

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The table below presents the comparison of our historical results of operations for the periods presented:

Non-GAAP

Non-GAAP

Combined

Combined

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Ended January

Ended January

(In thousands)

    

31, 2022

    

31, 2021

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

Total revenues

$

567,390

$

382,619

Operating expenses:

 

 

Costs of revenues

 

162,295

 

93,058

Content and software development

 

70,766

 

69,014

Selling and marketing

 

148,050

 

130,313

General and administrative

 

89,221

 

59,091

Amortization of intangible assets

 

146,824

 

74,202

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

 

 

332,376

Recapitalization and acquisition-related costs

 

27,132

 

48,027

Restructuring

 

2,993

 

5,520

Total operating expenses

 

647,281

 

811,601

Operating loss

 

(79,891)

 

(428,982)

Interest and other expense, net

 

(43,371)

 

(186,352)

Fair value adjustment to warrants

 

18,341

 

2,900

Reorganization items, net

 

 

3,329,245

Loss before benefit from income taxes

 

(104,921)

 

2,716,811

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes

 

(8,851)

 

46,521

Net (loss) income

$

(96,070)

$

2,670,290

The following table sets forth certain items from our consolidated statements of operations as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated:

Non-GAAP

Non-GAAP

Combined

Combined

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Ended January 31,

Ended January 31,

    

2022

2021

Revenues:

 

  

  

Total revenues

 

100.0%

100.0%

Operating expenses:

 

Costs of revenues

 

28.6%

24.3%

Content and software development

 

12.5%

18.0%

Selling and marketing

 

26.1%

34.1%

General and administrative

 

15.7%

15.4%

Amortization of intangible assets

 

25.9%

19.4%

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

 

0.0%

86.9%

Recapitalization and acquisition-related costs

 

4.8%

12.6%

Restructuring

 

0.5%

1.4%

Total operating expenses

 

114.1%

212.1%

Operating loss

 

(14.1)%

(112.1)%

Interest and other expense, net

 

(7.6)%

(48.7)%

Fair value adjustment to warrants

 

3.2%

0.8%

Reorganization items, net

 

0.0%

870.1%

Loss before benefit from income taxes

 

(18.5)%

710.1%

(Benefit from) provision for income taxes

 

(1.6)%

12.2%

Net (loss) income

 

(16.9)%

697.9%

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Revenues

We provide, through our Skillsoft, Global Knowledge, and SumTotal brands, enterprise learning solutions designed to prepare organizations for the future of work, overcome critical skill gaps, drive demonstrable behavior-change, and unlock the potential in their people.

Skillsoft generates revenues from its comprehensive suite of premium, original, and authorized partner content, featuring one of the deepest libraries of leadership & business, technology & development, and compliance curricula. With access to a broad spectrum of learning options (including video, audio, books, bootcamps, live events, and practice labs), organizations can meaningfully increase learner engagement and retention. Skillsoft’s offerings are delivered through Percipio, our award-winning, AI-driven, immersive learning platform purpose built to make learning easier, more accessible, and more effective. These learning solutions are typically sold on a subscription basis for a fixed term.

Global Knowledge generates revenues from virtual, in-classroom, and on-demand training solutions in information technology geared at foundational, practitioner and expert information technology professionals. Global Knowledge’s digital and in-classroom learning solutions provide enterprises, government agencies, educational institutions, and individual customers a broad selection of customizable courses to meet their technology and development needs.

SumTotal generates revenues from its unified, comprehensive and configurable SaaS talent management solution that allows organizations to attract, develop and retain the best talent. SumTotal also sells professional services related to the talent management solution, and occasionally provide perpetual and term-based licenses for on-premise versions of the solution.

The following table sets forth the percentage of our revenues attributable to geographic regions for the periods indicated:

Non-GAAP

Non-GAAP

Combined

Combined

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Ended January

Ended January

    

31, 2022

    

31, 2021

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

United States

 

65.6%

78.9%

Other Americas

 

6.7%

3.6%

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

23.2%

12.2%

Asia-Pacific

 

4.5%

5.3%

Total revenues

 

100.0%

100.0%

Subscription and Non-Subscription Revenue

SaaS and Subscription Revenue. Represents revenue generated from contracts specifying a minimum fixed fee for services delivered over the life of the contract. The initial term of these contracts is generally two to five years and is generally non-cancellable for the term of the subscription. The fixed fee is generally paid upfront. These contracts typically consist of subscriptions to our various offerings which provide continuous access to our SaaS platforms and associated content over the contract term. Subscription revenues are inclusive of maintenance revenue for SumTotal. Subscription revenue is usually recognized ratably over the contract term.

Non-Subscription Revenue. Primarily represents the sale of Global Knowledge classroom offerings in both in-person and virtual environments. Classroom training, including virtual offerings, are first scheduled, then delivered later, with revenue realized on the delivery date. Non-subscription revenue also includes professional services related to implementation of our offerings and subsequent, ongoing consulting engagements. Our non-subscription services complement our subscription business in creating strong and comprehensive customer relationships.

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The following table sets forth (i) SaaS and subscription and (ii) non-subscription revenue for our business units for the periods indicated:

Non-GAAP

Non-GAAP

Combined

Combined

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Ended January

Ended January

(In thousands)

    

31, 2022

    

31, 2021

SaaS and subscription revenues:

 

  

 

  

Content

$

300,680

$

257,432

SumTotal

 

91,837

 

87,388

Total subscription revenues

 

392,517

 

344,820

Non-subscription revenues:

 

  

 

  

Content

 

16,228

 

11,231

Virtual, on-demand and classroom

 

132,586

 

SumTotal

 

26,059

 

26,568

Total non-subscription revenues

 

174,873

 

37,799

Total revenues

$

567,390

$

382,619

Revenue by Product and Service Type

The following is a summary of our revenues by product and service type for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022 and 2021:

Non-GAAP

Non-GAAP

    

    

 

Combined

Combined

 

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Dollar

 

Ended

Ended

Increase/

Percent

(In thousands, except percentages)

    

January 31, 2022

January 31, 2021

    

(Decrease)

    

Change

 

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

SaaS and subscription services

$

374,665

$

327,971

$

46,694

14.2%

Software maintenance

 

17,852

 

16,849

 

1,003

 

6.0%

Professional services

 

39,797

 

34,045

 

5,752

 

16.9%

Software licenses and other

 

2,490

 

3,754

 

(1,264)

 

(33.7)%

Virtual, on-demand and classroom

 

132,586

 

 

132,586

 

100.0%

Total revenues

$

567,390

$

382,619

$

184,771

48.3%

Revenues increased $184.8 million, or 48.3%, during fiscal 2022,  compared to fiscal 2021. The primary reason for the increase in GAAP revenue is due to the inclusion of Global Knowledge revenue for the period subsequent to its acquisition on June 11, 2021, which resulted in an increase of $132.6 million for fiscal 2022. Revenues in fiscal 2021 were also lower due to the application of fresh-start reporting in August 2020, which required deferred revenue as of August 28, 2020 to be reduced to its estimated fair value, which is derived from the estimated costs to fulfill contractual obligations at the time of a change in control rather than the value of contractual billings to customers. The application of fresh-start reporting resulted in a decrease in GAAP revenue of approximately $89.0 million in fiscal 2021. We adopted ASU 2021-08 – Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2021-08”), effective at the beginning of the Successor period on June 11, 2021. ASU 2021-08 requires an acquirer in a business combination to recognize and measure deferred revenue from acquired contracts using the revenue recognition guidance in Topic 606, rather than the prior requirement to record deferred revenue at a lower fair value. As a result of the adoption of ASU 2021-08, we did not experience a decline in revenue subsequent to June 11, 2021 attributable to a fair value adjustment as we did with the application of fresh-start reporting in the prior year. After normalizing for the impact of the acquisition of Global Knowledge and fresh-start reporting, revenues for the Content and SumTotal business units were down slightly due to lower bookings in the prior year, as revenue from our subscription offerings is typically recognized over the twelve months that follow a booking.

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Table of Contents

Operating expenses

    

Non-GAAP

    

Non-GAAP

    

    

    

    

 

Combined

Combined

 

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Dollar

 

Ended

Ended

Increase/

Percent

(In thousands, except percentages)

January 31, 2022

January 31, 2021

(Decrease)

Change

 

Cost of revenues

$

162,295

$

93,058

$

69,237

 

74.4%

Content and software development

 

70,766

 

69,014

 

1,752

 

2.5%

Selling and marketing

 

148,050

 

130,313

 

17,737

 

13.6%

General and administrative

 

89,221

 

59,091

 

30,130

 

51.0%

Amortization of intangible assets

 

146,824

 

74,202

 

72,622

 

97.9%

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

 

 

332,376

 

(332,376)

 

(100.0)%

Recapitalization and acquisition-related costs

 

27,132

 

48,027

 

(20,895)

 

(43.5)%

Restructuring

 

2,993

 

5,520

 

(2,527)

 

(45.8)%

Total operating expenses

$

647,281

$

811,601

$

(164,320)

 

(20.2)%

Cost of revenues

Cost of revenues consists primarily of employee salaries and benefits for hosting operations, professional service and customer support personnel; royalties; hosting and software maintenance services; facilities and utilities costs; consulting services; instructor fees, course materials, logistics costs and overhead costs associated with virtual, in-classroom, and on-demand training solutions. The table below provides details regarding the changes in components of cost of revenues.

    

Non-GAAP 

    

Non-GAAP 

    

    

    

 

Combined

Combined

    

 

Fiscal Year

Fiscal Year

Dollar

 

Ended

Ended

Increase/

Percent

(In thousands, except percentages)

January 31, 2022

January 31, 2021

(Decrease)

Change

 

Compensation and benefits

$

69,987

$

53,178

$

16,809

 

31.6%

Royalties

 

32,920

 

16,902

 

16,018

 

94.8%

Consulting and outside services

 

33,077

 

3,356

 

29,721

 

885.6%

Hosting and software maintenance

 

12,531

 

12,274

 

257

 

2.1%

Facilities and utilities

7,552

2,170

5,382

248.0%

Depreciation

 

5,615

 

5,050

 

565

 

11.2%

Other

 

613

 

128

 

485

 

378.9%

Total cost of revenues

$

162,295

$

93,058

$

69,237

 

74.4%

The increases in compensation and benefits, royalties, consulting and outside services, facilities and utilities, and depreciation expenses in fiscal 2022, compared to fiscal 2021, were primarily the result of the inclusion of Global Knowledge’s expenses incurred subsequent to its acquisition on June 11, 2021. The increase in hosting and software maintenance expenses was offset by the decrease in server licensing costs, which was the result of the migration of Percipio from our servers to cloud storage.

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Table of Contents

Content and software development

Content and software development expenses include costs associated with the development of new products and the enhancement of existing products, consisting primarily of employee salaries and benefits; development-related professional services; facilities costs; depreciation; and software maintenance costs. The table below provides details regarding the changes in components of content and software development expenses.